Ossasepia

September 27, 2018

Tester for UDP Communications

Filed under: Coding, UDP — Diana Coman @ 8:33 p.m.

This code builds on Stanislav Datskovskiy's minimal UDP lib to provide a convenient way of gathering data to evaluate UDP communications between any desired two nodes. The initial specification was to provide a reliable way to "send a soup of all packets lengths from 1 to 65536 bytes each hour back and forth" but this was refined further down the line1 to reduce the maximum length of the payload to 2048 and to include a Mersenne-Twister (MT) pseudorandom number generator (prng) for scrambling the various message sizes. To accomplish that, there are two main parts that I'm adding to the original UDP library:

  1. The MT lib that is simply an Ada implementation of the MT prng algorithm.
  2. The UDP_Tester package that uses a slightly adapted UDP lib and the MT lib above to provide a UDP sender and a corresponding UDP receiver that implement the testing specification and log the relevant data.

MT lib
The MT lib is a standalone Ada library implementing the well-known Mersenne Twister algorithm for pseudorandom number generation2. I am not aware of any other Ada implementation of MT and since I really don't want to add C code to my plate unless I absolutely have to, I simply ported to Ada the reference C implementation provided by the original authors of MT. As such, there isn't much to discuss about the implementation itself - I'll point however the changes I made with respect to the original implementation, namely:

  • In my Ada version of MT, there is no default seeding of the MT generator. The C version allows the caller to ask the generator for numbers without having seeded it - in this case, the C implementation seeds itself with a magic default value that is hardcoded at the checking spot and then just proceeds as if nothing was wrong. I find this approach abhorent because it effectively hides an error (calling the generator without seeding it first) rather than complaining about it and forcing its correction. Consequently, my MT lib will simply abort if the generator is asked for numbers without having been seeded first.3
  • Because Ada is most pointedly not a sort of C, there was no need for the various types of hacks added to the C version to ensure that it still worked correctly on 64-bit machines and not only on the 32-bit machines for which the code was initially written. In Ada it's enough to specify one's types correctly to be exactly and guaranteed 32-bits and then proceed to work with them as such, regardless of whether the processor running the code has 32-bit or 64-bit or x-bit registers.
  • My MT lib provides just one type of pseudorandom numbers, namely unsigned integers on 32 bits. The original C implementation had several wrappers around this main function to map the 32 bits pseudorandom numbers to the interval (0,1) for instance and similar. All the mappings were trivial and they can be easily done by any caller that requires them - precisely in the way they require them. At this stage at least I don't quite see the need for those as part of MT lib and so I left them out - there is only the core offering of 32 pseudorandom bits as it were and the caller can then use or interpret them as they see fit.
  • To check that my implementation results in precisely the same sequence of numbers as the original C MT, I added an automated test (still in Ada) that uses the reference seed and checks the output of MT lib (number by number) against the reference output from the original C MT, reporting any mismatches.

The code of MT lib is self-contained with declarations in mt.ads:

 -- Ada implementation of the Mersenne Twister Pseudo-Random number generator
 -- S.MG, 2018

with Interfaces; use Interfaces;

package MT is
  -- Interfaces.Unsigned_32 in GNAT is mod 2**32 and has bitwise shifts defined
  subtype U32 is Interfaces.Unsigned_32;

  -- period parameters
  N          : constant := 624;
  M          : constant := 397;
  MATRIX_MASK: constant U32 := 16#9908_b0df#;
  UPPER_MASK : constant U32 := 16#8000_0000#;
  LOWER_MASK : constant U32 := 16#7fff_ffff#;

  -- array type for storing the state vector of the generator
  type State_Type is Array( 0 .. N-1 ) of U32;

  -- array type for initialization by array - change key len here if needed
  KEY_LEN    : constant := 4;
  type Init_Array_Type is Array( 0 .. KEY_LEN - 1 ) of U32;

  -- exception raised by a call to generator before initializing it
  No_Init_Exception : exception;

  -- initialize the generator with a seed (number)
  procedure Init_Genrand(Seed : in U32);

  -- initialize the generator with array of 8-octets elements
  procedure Init_Genrand(Seed : in Init_Array_Type);

  -- generate the next pseudo-random 32 bits number in the sequence
  function Gen_U32 return U32;

  -- for testing
  function Get_State return State_Type;

  -- internals of the generator, NOT for direct access
private
  -- actual state of the generator
  State      : State_Type;

  -- flag for generator routine
  Mti_Flag : U32 := N + 1;  -- default value -> state(N) is not initialised

end MT;

And implementation in mt.adb:

 -- Ada implementation of the Mersenne Twister Pseudo-Random number generator
 -- S.MG, 2018

package body MT is

  procedure Init_Genrand(Seed : in U32) is
  begin
    State(0) := Seed;
    for I in State'First + 1 .. State'Last loop
      State(I) := U32(1812433253) *
                  ( State(I - 1) xor
                    ( Shift_Right(State(I - 1), 30) )
                  ) + U32(I) ;
    end loop;
    Mti_Flag := N;
  end Init_Genrand;

  procedure Init_Genrand(Seed : in Init_Array_Type) is
    Default_Seed: constant U32 := U32(19650218); -- magic value!
    I, J, K : Integer;
  begin
    Init_Genrand(Default_Seed);
    I := 1;
    J := 0;
    if N > Seed'Length then
      K := N;
    else
      K := Seed'Length;
    end if;

    while K > 0 loop
      State(I) := (State(I) xor
                  ( (State(I-1) xor
                     Shift_Right(State(I-1), 30)
                    ) * U32(1664525)
                  )) + Seed(J) + U32(J);
      I := I + 1;
      J := J + 1;
      if I >= N then
        State(0) := State(N-1);
        I := 1;
      end if;
      if J >= Seed'Length then
        J := 0;
      end if;
      K := K - 1;
    end loop;

    K := N -1;
    while K > 0 loop
      State(I) := (State(I) xor
                  ( (State(I-1) xor
                     Shift_Right(State(I-1), 30)
                    ) * U32(1566083941)
                  )) - U32(I);
      I := I + 1;
      if I >= N then
        State(0) := State(N-1);
        I := 1;
      end if;
      K := K - 1;
    end loop;
    State(0) := 16#8000_0000#; -- MSB is 1 to ensure non-zero initial state
  end Init_Genrand;

  function Gen_U32 return U32 is
    Y     : U32;
    MASK1 : constant U32 := U32(1);
    Mag01 : Array ( 0 .. 1 ) of U32;
  begin
    -- Mag01[x] is x * Matrix_A of the algorithm for x 0 or 1
    Mag01(0) := U32(0);
    Mag01(1) := MATRIX_MASK;

    -- if no numbers available, generate another set of N words
    if Mti_Flag >= N then

      -- check it's not a non-initialised generator
      if Mti_Flag = (N + 1) then
         -- Generator was NOT initialised!
         -- Original C code initialises with default seed 5489
         -- This code will simply raise exception and abort
         raise No_Init_Exception;
      end if;

      for K in 0 .. N - M - 1 loop
        Y := ( State(K)   and UPPER_MASK ) or
             ( State(K+1) and LOWER_MASK );
        State(K) := State(K+M) xor
                      Shift_Right(Y, 1) xor
                        Mag01(Integer(Y and MASK1));
      end loop;
      for K in N-M .. N - 2 loop
        Y := ( State(K)   and UPPER_MASK  ) or
             ( State(K+1) and LOWER_MASK);
        State(K) := State(K + M - N) xor
                      Shift_Right(Y, 1) xor
                        Mag01(Integer(Y and MASK1));
      end loop;
      Y := (State(N-1) and UPPER_MASK ) or
             (State(0) and LOWER_MASK );
      State(N - 1) := State(M-1) xor
                        Shift_Right(Y, 1) xor
                          Mag01(Integer(Y and MASK1));
      Mti_Flag := 0;
    end if;

    -- retrieve next available number
    Y        := State(Integer(Mti_Flag));
    Mti_Flag := Mti_Flag + 1;

    -- tempering
    Y := Y xor Shift_Right(Y, 11);
    Y := Y xor (Shift_Left(Y, 7) and 16#9d2c_5680#);
    Y := Y xor (Shift_Left(Y, 15) and 16#efc6_0000#);
    Y := Y xor Shift_Right(Y, 18);

    -- return tempered number
    return Y;
  end Gen_U32;

  function Get_State return State_Type is
  begin
    return State;
  end Get_State;

end MT;

The test for the above MT lib is in its own testmt/test_mt.adb, including the reference output (that really is the largest part of the whole file):

  --S.MG, 2018

with Ada.Text_IO; use Ada.Text_IO;
with Interfaces; use Interfaces;
with MT;

procedure Tests_MT is
  Seeds : MT.Init_Array_Type;
  X     : MT.U32;
  No    : constant Integer := 1000;
  Result: Array(0..No-1) of MT.U32 := (
    1067595299,  955945823,  477289528, 4107218783, 4228976476,
    3344332714, 3355579695,  227628506,  810200273, 2591290167,
    2560260675, 3242736208,  646746669, 1479517882, 4245472273,
    1143372638, 3863670494, 3221021970, 1773610557, 1138697238,
    1421897700, 1269916527, 2859934041, 1764463362, 3874892047,
    3965319921,   72549643, 2383988930, 2600218693, 3237492380,
    2792901476,  725331109,  605841842,  271258942,  715137098,
    3297999536, 1322965544, 4229579109, 1395091102, 3735697720,
    2101727825, 3730287744, 2950434330, 1661921839, 2895579582,
    2370511479, 1004092106, 2247096681, 2111242379, 3237345263,
    4082424759,  219785033, 2454039889, 3709582971,  835606218,
    2411949883, 2735205030,  756421180, 2175209704, 1873865952,
    2762534237, 4161807854, 3351099340,  181129879, 3269891896,
     776029799, 2218161979, 3001745796, 1866825872, 2133627728,
      34862734, 1191934573, 3102311354, 2916517763, 1012402762,
    2184831317, 4257399449, 2899497138, 3818095062, 3030756734,
    1282161629,  420003642, 2326421477, 2741455717, 1278020671,
    3744179621,  271777016, 2626330018, 2560563991, 3055977700,
    4233527566, 1228397661, 3595579322, 1077915006, 2395931898,
    1851927286, 3013683506, 1999971931, 3006888962, 1049781534,
    1488758959, 3491776230,  104418065, 2448267297, 3075614115,
    3872332600,  891912190, 3936547759, 2269180963, 2633455084,
    1047636807, 2604612377, 2709305729, 1952216715,  207593580,
    2849898034,  670771757, 2210471108,  467711165,  263046873,
    3569667915, 1042291111, 3863517079, 1464270005, 2758321352,
    3790799816, 2301278724, 3106281430,    7974801, 2792461636,
     555991332,  621766759, 1322453093,  853629228,  686962251,
    1455120532,  957753161, 1802033300, 1021534190, 3486047311,
    1902128914, 3701138056, 4176424663, 1795608698,  560858864,
    3737752754, 3141170998, 1553553385, 3367807274,  711546358,
    2475125503,  262969859,  251416325, 2980076994, 1806565895,
     969527843, 3529327173, 2736343040, 2987196734, 1649016367,
    2206175811, 3048174801, 3662503553, 3138851612, 2660143804,
    1663017612, 1816683231,  411916003, 3887461314, 2347044079,
    1015311755, 1203592432, 2170947766, 2569420716,  813872093,
    1105387678, 1431142475,  220570551, 4243632715, 4179591855,
    2607469131, 3090613241,  282341803, 1734241730, 1391822177,
    1001254810,  827927915, 1886687171, 3935097347, 2631788714,
    3905163266,  110554195, 2447955646, 3717202975, 3304793075,
    3739614479, 3059127468,  953919171, 2590123714, 1132511021,
    3795593679, 2788030429,  982155079, 3472349556,  859942552,
    2681007391, 2299624053,  647443547,  233600422,  608168955,
    3689327453, 1849778220, 1608438222, 3968158357, 2692977776,
    2851872572,  246750393, 3582818628, 3329652309, 4036366910,
    1012970930,  950780808, 3959768744, 2538550045,  191422718,
    2658142375, 3276369011, 2927737484, 1234200027, 1920815603,
    3536074689, 1535612501, 2184142071, 3276955054,  428488088,
    2378411984, 4059769550, 3913744741, 2732139246,   64369859,
    3755670074,  842839565, 2819894466, 2414718973, 1010060670,
    1839715346, 2410311136,  152774329, 3485009480, 4102101512,
    2852724304,  879944024, 1785007662, 2748284463, 1354768064,
    3267784736, 2269127717, 3001240761, 3179796763,  895723219,
     865924942, 4291570937,   89355264, 1471026971, 4114180745,
    3201939751, 2867476999, 2460866060, 3603874571, 2238880432,
    3308416168, 2072246611, 2755653839, 3773737248, 1709066580,
    4282731467, 2746170170, 2832568330,  433439009, 3175778732,
      26248366, 2551382801,  183214346, 3893339516, 1928168445,
    1337157619, 3429096554, 3275170900, 1782047316, 4264403756,
    1876594403, 4289659572, 3223834894, 1728705513, 4068244734,
    2867840287, 1147798696,  302879820, 1730407747, 1923824407,
    1180597908, 1569786639,  198796327,  560793173, 2107345620,
    2705990316, 3448772106, 3678374155,  758635715,  884524671,
     486356516, 1774865603, 3881226226, 2635213607, 1181121587,
    1508809820, 3178988241, 1594193633, 1235154121,  326117244,
    2304031425,  937054774, 2687415945, 3192389340, 2003740439,
    1823766188, 2759543402,   10067710, 1533252662, 4132494984,
      82378136,  420615890, 3467563163,  541562091, 3535949864,
    2277319197, 3330822853, 3215654174, 4113831979, 4204996991,
    2162248333, 3255093522, 2219088909, 2978279037,  255818579,
    2859348628, 3097280311, 2569721123, 1861951120, 2907080079,
    2719467166,  998319094, 2521935127, 2404125338,  259456032,
    2086860995, 1839848496, 1893547357, 2527997525, 1489393124,
    2860855349,   76448234, 2264934035,  744914583, 2586791259,
    1385380501,   66529922, 1819103258, 1899300332, 2098173828,
    1793831094,  276463159,  360132945, 4178212058,  595015228,
     177071838, 2800080290, 1573557746, 1548998935,  378454223,
    1460534296, 1116274283, 3112385063, 3709761796,  827999348,
    3580042847, 1913901014,  614021289, 4278528023, 1905177404,
      45407939, 3298183234, 1184848810, 3644926330, 3923635459,
    1627046213, 3677876759,  969772772, 1160524753, 1522441192,
     452369933, 1527502551,  832490847, 1003299676, 1071381111,
    2891255476,  973747308, 4086897108, 1847554542, 3895651598,
    2227820339, 1621250941, 2881344691, 3583565821, 3510404498,
     849362119,  862871471,  797858058, 2867774932, 2821282612,
    3272403146, 3997979905,  209178708, 1805135652,    6783381,
    2823361423,  792580494, 4263749770,  776439581, 3798193823,
    2853444094, 2729507474, 1071873341, 1329010206, 1289336450,
    3327680758, 2011491779,   80157208,  922428856, 1158943220,
    1667230961, 2461022820, 2608845159,  387516115, 3345351910,
    1495629111, 4098154157, 3156649613, 3525698599, 4134908037,
     446713264, 2137537399, 3617403512,  813966752, 1157943946,
    3734692965, 1680301658, 3180398473, 3509854711, 2228114612,
    1008102291,  486805123,  863791847, 3189125290, 1050308116,
    3777341526, 4291726501,  844061465, 1347461791, 2826481581,
     745465012, 2055805750, 4260209475, 2386693097, 2980646741,
     447229436, 2077782664, 1232942813, 4023002732, 1399011509,
    3140569849, 2579909222, 3794857471,  900758066, 2887199683,
    1720257997, 3367494931, 2668921229,  955539029, 3818726432,
    1105704962, 3889207255, 2277369307, 2746484505, 1761846513,
    2413916784, 2685127085, 4240257943, 1166726899, 4215215715,
    3082092067, 3960461946, 1663304043, 2087473241, 4162589986,
    2507310778, 1579665506,  767234210,  970676017,  492207530,
    1441679602, 1314785090, 3262202570, 3417091742, 1561989210,
    3011406780, 1146609202, 3262321040, 1374872171, 1634688712,
    1280458888, 2230023982,  419323804, 3262899800,   39783310,
    1641619040, 1700368658, 2207946628, 2571300939, 2424079766,
     780290914, 2715195096, 3390957695,  163151474, 2309534542,
    1860018424,  555755123,  280320104, 1604831083, 2713022383,
    1728987441, 3639955502,  623065489, 3828630947, 4275479050,
    3516347383, 2343951195, 2430677756,  635534992, 3868699749,
     808442435, 3070644069, 4282166003, 2093181383, 2023555632,
    1568662086, 3422372620, 4134522350, 3016979543, 3259320234,
    2888030729, 3185253876, 4258779643, 1267304371, 1022517473,
     815943045,  929020012, 2995251018, 3371283296, 3608029049,
    2018485115,  122123397, 2810669150, 1411365618, 1238391329,
    1186786476, 3155969091, 2242941310, 1765554882,  279121160,
    4279838515, 1641578514, 3796324015,   13351065,  103516986,
    1609694427,  551411743, 2493771609, 1316337047, 3932650856,
    4189700203,  463397996, 2937735066, 1855616529, 2626847990,
      55091862, 3823351211,  753448970, 4045045500, 1274127772,
    1124182256,   92039808, 2126345552,  425973257,  386287896,
    2589870191, 1987762798, 4084826973, 2172456685, 3366583455,
    3602966653, 2378803535, 2901764433, 3716929006, 3710159000,
    2653449155, 3469742630, 3096444476, 3932564653, 2595257433,
     318974657, 3146202484,  853571438,  144400272, 3768408841,
     782634401, 2161109003,  570039522, 1886241521,   14249488,
    2230804228, 1604941699, 3928713335, 3921942509, 2155806892,
     134366254,  430507376, 1924011722,  276713377,  196481886,
    3614810992, 1610021185, 1785757066,  851346168, 3761148643,
    2918835642, 3364422385, 3012284466, 3735958851, 2643153892,
    3778608231, 1164289832,  205853021, 2876112231, 3503398282,
    3078397001, 3472037921, 1748894853, 2740861475,  316056182,
    1660426908,  168885906,  956005527, 3984354789,  566521563,
    1001109523, 1216710575, 2952284757, 3834433081, 3842608301,
    2467352408, 3974441264, 3256601745, 1409353924, 1329904859,
    2307560293, 3125217879, 3622920184, 3832785684, 3882365951,
    2308537115, 2659155028, 1450441945, 3532257603, 3186324194,
    1225603425, 1124246549,  175808705, 3009142319, 2796710159,
    3651990107,  160762750, 1902254979, 1698648476, 1134980669,
     497144426, 3302689335, 4057485630, 3603530763, 4087252587,
     427812652,  286876201,  823134128, 1627554964, 3745564327,
    2589226092, 4202024494,   62878473, 3275585894, 3987124064,
    2791777159, 1916869511, 2585861905, 1375038919, 1403421920,
      60249114, 3811870450, 3021498009, 2612993202,  528933105,
    2757361321, 3341402964, 2621861700,  273128190, 4015252178,
    3094781002, 1621621288, 2337611177, 1796718448, 1258965619,
    4241913140, 2138560392, 3022190223, 4174180924,  450094611,
    3274724580,  617150026, 2704660665, 1469700689, 1341616587,
     356715071, 1188789960, 2278869135, 1766569160, 2795896635,
      57824704, 2893496380, 1235723989, 1630694347, 3927960522,
     428891364, 1814070806, 2287999787, 4125941184, 3968103889,
    3548724050, 1025597707, 1404281500, 2002212197,   92429143,
    2313943944, 2403086080, 3006180634, 3561981764, 1671860914,
    1768520622, 1803542985,  844848113, 3006139921, 1410888995,
    1157749833, 2125704913, 1789979528, 1799263423,  741157179,
    2405862309,  767040434, 2655241390, 3663420179, 2172009096,
    2511931187, 1680542666,  231857466, 1154981000,  157168255,
    1454112128, 3505872099, 1929775046, 2309422350, 2143329496,
    2960716902,  407610648, 2938108129, 2581749599,  538837155,
    2342628867,  430543915,  740188568, 1937713272, 3315215132,
    2085587024, 4030765687,  766054429, 3517641839,  689721775,
    1294158986, 1753287754, 4202601348, 1974852792,   33459103,
    3568087535, 3144677435, 1686130825, 4134943013, 3005738435,
    3599293386,  426570142,  754104406, 3660892564, 1964545167,
     829466833,  821587464, 1746693036, 1006492428, 1595312919,
    1256599985, 1024482560, 1897312280, 2902903201,  691790057,
    1037515867, 3176831208, 1968401055, 2173506824, 1089055278,
    1748401123, 2941380082,  968412354, 1818753861, 2973200866,
    3875951774, 1119354008, 3988604139, 1647155589, 2232450826,
    3486058011, 3655784043, 3759258462,  847163678, 1082052057,
     989516446, 2871541755, 3196311070, 3929963078,  658187585,
    3664944641, 2175149170, 2203709147, 2756014689, 2456473919,
    3890267390, 1293787864, 2830347984, 3059280931, 4158802520,
    1561677400, 2586570938,  783570352, 1355506163,   31495586,
    3789437343, 3340549429, 2092501630,  896419368,  671715824,
    3530450081, 3603554138, 1055991716, 3442308219, 1499434728,
    3130288473, 3639507000,   17769680, 2259741420,  487032199,
    4227143402, 3693771256, 1880482820, 3924810796,  381462353,
    4017855991, 2452034943, 2736680833, 2209866385, 2128986379,
     437874044,  595759426,  641721026, 1636065708, 3899136933,
     629879088, 3591174506,  351984326, 2638783544, 2348444281,
    2341604660, 2123933692,  143443325, 1525942256,  364660499,
     599149312,  939093251, 1523003209,  106601097,  376589484,
    1346282236, 1297387043,  764598052, 3741218111,  933457002,
    1886424424, 3219631016,  525405256, 3014235619,  323149677,
    2038881721, 4100129043, 2851715101, 2984028078, 1888574695,
    2014194741, 3515193880, 4180573530, 3461824363, 2641995497,
    3179230245, 2902294983, 2217320456, 4040852155, 1784656905,
    3311906931,   87498458, 2752971818, 2635474297, 2831215366,
    3682231106, 2920043893, 3772929704, 2816374944,  309949752,
    2383758854,  154870719,  385111597, 1191604312, 1840700563,
     872191186, 2925548701, 1310412747, 2102066999, 1504727249,
    3574298750, 1191230036, 3330575266, 3180292097, 3539347721,
     681369118, 3305125752, 3648233597,  950049240, 4173257693,
    1760124957,  512151405,  681175196,  580563018, 1169662867,
    4015033554, 2687781101,  699691603, 2673494188, 1137221356,
     123599888,  472658308, 1053598179, 1012713758, 3481064843,
    3759461013, 3981457956, 3830587662, 1877191791, 3650996736,
     988064871, 3515461600, 4089077232, 2225147448, 1249609188,
    2643151863, 3896204135, 2416995901, 1397735321, 3460025646);

begin
  Seeds(0) := MT.U32(16#123#);
  Seeds(1) := MT.U32(16#234#);
  Seeds(2) := MT.U32(16#345#);
  Seeds(3) := MT.U32(16#456#);
  MT.Init_Genrand(Seeds);

  Put_Line("Generating numbers...");
  for I in 0 .. No-1 loop
    X := MT.Gen_U32;
    Put(".");
    if X /= Result(I) then
      Put_Line("");
      Put_Line("ERROR at position " & Integer'Image(I) &
               "; expected " & MT.U32'Image(Result(I)) &
               " but result is " & MT.U32'Image(X));
    end if;
  end loop;
  Put_Line("");
end Tests_MT;

UDP_Tester
The UDP_Tester has two main components: the sender and the receiver. For convenience, there are simple wrappers for those components - udp_sender.adb and udp_receiver.adb respectively - so that a build of UDP_Tester will directly provide two executables - sender and receiver. The IP and port numbers are knobs that can be easily changed from those wrappers directly since they are passed as parameters to the UDP_tester methods themselves.
udp_sender.adb:

  -- S.MG, 2018

with UDP_Tester;

procedure UDP_Sender is
  -- Sender and Receiver addresses + ports
  Receiver_IP   : constant String   := "161.0.121.202"; -- smg.test machine
  Receiver_Port : constant          := 7000;

  Sender_Port   : constant          := 5000;

begin

  UDP_Tester.Sender( Receiver_IP, Receiver_Port, Sender_Port) ;

end UDP_Sender;

udp_receiver.adb:

  -- S.MG, 2018

with UDP_Tester;

procedure UDP_Receiver is
  -- Port to listen on
  Receiver_Port : constant          := 7000;
begin

  UDP_Tester.Receiver( Receiver_Port );

end UDP_Receiver;

The UDP_Tester.Receiver method simply runs an endless loop in which it listens for UDP packages on a given port number and logs basic information about each pacakge it receives. The UDP_Tester.Sender method assembles and sends in a pseudorandom order all packages with length between 6 (size of own header) and maximum length. Note that the sender will send each size of package *only once* and it will simply finish once it sent one package of each size. Consequently, for data collection purposes, the sender will have to be started repeatedly from outside - most conveniently through a cron task4. Because the workings of both sender and receiver are quite basic, I won't cover them here in more detail - the code and comments should make it clear enough and if that's not the case, you can always ask your questions here in the comments. However, it's worth noting instead a few important points about the tester as a whole and the changes it imposes on the UDP lib:

  • To enable sending of packets with various sizes, the UDP lib had to be made generic. In Ada, this means that a calling packet can then instantiate the UDP type with its desired parameters (in this case the size of the UDP package). Specifically, from the UDP_Tester.Sender code, this reads:
          declare
            K : constant Positive := Packet_Size;
            -- sender will have *current* size of UDP packet
            package UDP_Sdr is new UDP( Payload_Size => K );
    

    Essentially the sender runs a loop and at each iteration it selects one of the remaining packet sizes, it instantiates UDP_Sdr as a parametrized UDP package and only then proceeds to use it to send the actual data.

    Note that this change is *not* required in production - it's simply needed for testing purposes. It's for this reason that it's part of the .vpatch for UDP_Tester rather than a .vpatch in itself on the UDP lib directly.

  • The sender will wait 1 second between any 2 packages it sends. This is mainly because a first version without this delay proved to result in significant packet loss that was clearly due to the burst mode (i.e. more than 2000 packages sent in 1 second) rather than anything else. Since the point of the test was to gather some data on UDP communication in relaxed rather than stress conditions, the delay of 1 second was introduced. However, should you wish to stress-test for any reason, you can easily remove this delay - simply comment out the "delay 1.0" line in the sender and that's all.
  • The UDP_Tester currently logs some information on both sides. Both sender and receiver will first check for a fixed-name file and if it doesn't exist they will create it, writing the header to it as well. After that, all new data will simply be appended to the file. The sender logs the size, local time, destination IP, destination port and seed used for the MT prng - this seed is the local time (unix style) when the sender is started. The receiver logs the size (both as received and as claimed in the packet's own header), the time (local time when sent and local time when received), the source IP, the source port and the number of octets that are different from expected. In addition, the receiver will further log in a separate file the actual octets that are found to contain errors, if any (together with information to easily link them back to the exact package they were part of).
  • There is no attempt to match directlty the times at the sender and at the receiver - any difference between the two local times should be noted when the tests are run and then provided together with the data so that the analysis can be done in a meaningful way. Specifically, the local times used by sender and receiver are simply retrieved with Ada.Calendar.Clock and then converted to unix style by subtracting from them the "epoch" (0 on 1/1/1970).
  • The use of generic packages and of Ada.Calendar in UDP_Tester imposed a relaxation of restrictions upstream i.e. in the UDP and MT libs. Since the relaxation of those restrictions is again (just like the generics change) required for testing *only*, they are simply commented out as part of the changes included in the UDP_Tester .vpatch.

To obtain a working UDP_Tester, simply download the relevant set of .vpatch and .sig files and press with your favourite V5. The patches are available as usual on my Reference Shelf and linked from here as well, for your convenience:

At the moment I am running the above tester in both directions between a node in the UK and one in Uruguay so hopefully I'll soon have some data to look at!


  1. Follow the discussion in the logs as there is no better way to get the details than to actually read through the log. 

  2. M. Matsumoto and T. Nishimura, "Mersenne Twister: A 623-dimensionally equidistributed uniform pseudorandom number generator", ACM Transactions on Modelling and Computer Simulation Vol. 8, No. 1, January, pp.3-30, 1998. 

  3. If one really wants a default value, this could be perhaps added as a constant in the package and then used as such by the caller but I must say that I don't quite see the point of this. 

  4. It is of course possible to change the code so that the sender also runs in a loop and simply wakes up at given intervals and resends packages but I don't quite see any real benefit to doing it this way - on the contrary, I see benefit to *not* doing it this way, since cron tasks are quite perfect for this and even more robust (no idle time and guaranteed recovery even in more extreme cases such as computer reset). 

  5. NB: Using Keccak hashes, as per current republican standard for V-trees. 

September 14, 2018

SMG.Comms Implementation - Chapter 1

Filed under: Coding, SMG_Comms — Diana Coman @ 11:02 a.m.

~ This is a work in progress towards an Ada implementation of the communication protocol discussed on Trilema four months ago. ~

As far as I know, there isn't any more recent discussion of the above specification, nor any other attempt at all at any sort of implementation. Consequently, this is the first ever attempt - a prototype at this stage rather than a reference implementation. Moreover, it's also a sort of double first, since it clearly requires a deeper knowledge of Ada than I ever needed before. My approach to this pile of unknown here is to simply start working on it and expose the path travelled from this very first attempt to the final product, mistakes and detours and pitfalls to come included. You are welcome to follow along, to help if you can, to question if you don't understand, to extract perhaps in doing so some benefit for yourself.

The first decision I had to make before I could even really attempt any sort of prototype implementation at all concerned the library to use for the actual network communication. Since GNAT is the de-facto republican Ada compiler1, the logical decision is to simply use GNAT's own library, GNAT.Sockets and avoid otherwise as much as possible introducing additional, external dependencies - I really can't see any reason to add even more code even indirectly. So then GNAT.Sockets it is and hooray for that - except that there doesn't seem to be much documentation about it other than the comments in g-socket.ads and g-socket.adb! Still, the .ads file has a rather detailed introduction of the package with some commented examples in there so definitely worth reading as a starting point especially since... there isn't any other starting point really.

The g-socket files reveal essentially that any data to be sent or received through GNAT.Sockets will have to be stored at one point or another in an entity of Ada.Streams.Stream_Element_Array type. The examples in the file (and most everything else I could find on the topic) really focus almost exclusively2 on TCP connections - I suspect one "should prefer" TCP over UDP simply like that and we are even past the point of discussing therefore UDP in any scant docs or something. Nevertheless, I don't prefer it: Eulora's protocol is rather specifically designed to be stateless and to keep communications as simple and clear as possible - for as long as UDP is enough for the job, I'd rather use it!

Rummaging a bit in the g-sockets files reveals happily that UDP with GNAT.Sockets is in fact quite straightforward: one simply needs to specify "Socket_Datagram" as mode for the socket when calling Create_Socket and then use directly the Send_Socket( socket, data, last, to_address) and Receive_Socket(socket, data, last, from_address) methods. As one would expect, there is no reliable connection established, no "stream" of send and receive but only sockets that allow independent "send" and "receive" calls - each of those could in principle use a different address even. A quick example - keep reading for a a full, working example - of a server and client working with a UDP socket looks like this:

 -- on server:
     -- create UDP socket
    Create_Socket( Sock, Family_Inet, Socket_Datagram );

    -- set options on UDP socket
    Set_Socket_Option( Sock, Socket_Level, (Reuse_Address, True));

    -- set address and bind
    Address.Addr := Any_Inet_Addr;
    Address.Port := Port_No; -- the port number that server is listening on
    Bind_Socket( Sock, Address );
    Receive_Socket( Sock, Data, Last, From );

 -- on client:
    Address.Port := Port_No; -- server's port number
    Address.Addr := Inet_Addr("127.0.0.1"); -- this should be server's address here!
    Create_Socket(Sock, Family_Inet, Socket_Datagram);

    Send_Socket(Sock, Data, Last, Address);

With the very basics of the sockets part at least in place, the next part to decide on is how to send and receive over those sockets the actual data types defined by the protocol. After reading quite a bit on the Systems Programming (an annex of the Ada standard and therefore compiler-dependent) part of Ada (that is relevant for data representation) and on streams and on representation clauses and pragmas supported by GNAT and records and discriminants for records and everything else from the Ada reference book3 that I thought could help with this, I got to the conclusion that I'll keep it simple and clear especially for now, while I'm just starting to figure it all out! So I'll simply use GNAT's fixed width types defined in the Interfaces package and I'll copy otherwise the raw octets from and to those types using Ada.Unchecked_Conversion that works as far as I understand it precisely as a raw copy from memory. Once the data is simply obtained as a vector of raw octets, I can implement two simple functions to copy them into the Stream_Element_Array structure that can be sent directly through the UDP socket. Moreover, at this stage - and at this stage *only* - I'll worry about potentially different endianness of the local machine and the network: if local environment is little endian, the methods converting to and from network format will simply read the octets in reverse order. The relevant basic types and conversion methods are defined in the smg_comms_types.ads file:

 -- S.MG, 2018
 -- prototype implementation of S.MG communication protocol

with Ada.Streams; use Ada.Streams;
with Interfaces; use Interfaces; -- Integer_n and Unsigned_n
with Ada.Unchecked_Conversion; -- converting int/uint to array of octets

package SMG_comms_types is
  -- basic types with guaranteed lengths
  type Octet_Array is array(Natural range <>) of Unsigned_8;

  subtype Octets_1 is Octet_Array( 1 .. 1 );
  subtype Octets_2 is Octet_Array( 1 .. 2 );
  subtype Octets_4 is Octet_Array( 1 .. 4 );
  subtype Octets_8 is Octet_Array( 1 .. 8 );

  subtype Message is Octet_Array( 1 .. 512 );
  subtype RSAMessage is Octet_Array( 1 .. 245 );

  -- blind, unchecked casts ( memcpy style )
  function Cast is new Ada.Unchecked_Conversion( Integer_8, Octets_1 );
  function Cast is new Ada.Unchecked_Conversion( Octets_1, Integer_8 );
  function Cast is new Ada.Unchecked_Conversion( Integer_16, Octets_2 );
  function Cast is new Ada.Unchecked_Conversion( Octets_2, Integer_16 );

  function Cast is new Ada.Unchecked_Conversion( Integer_32, Octets_4 );
  function Cast is new Ada.Unchecked_Conversion( Octets_4, Integer_32 );

  function Cast is new Ada.Unchecked_Conversion( Integer_64, Octets_8 );
  function Cast is new Ada.Unchecked_Conversion( Octets_8, Integer_64 );

  -- to and from streams for network communications - general
  procedure ToNetworkFormat(
      Item   : in Octet_Array;
      Buffer : out Stream_Element_Array);

  procedure FromNetworkFormat(
      Buffer : in Stream_Element_Array;
      Item   : out Octet_Array);

  -- specific, convenience methods for the basic types
    -- Integer_8
  procedure ToNetworkFormat(
      Item   : in Integer_8;
      Buffer : out Stream_Element_Array);

  procedure FromNetworkFormat(
      Buffer : in Stream_Element_Array;
      Item   : out Integer_8);

end SMG_comms_types;

As you can easily notice, the above does not yet cover fully even the 3.0 "Basic types" part of the protocol specification. It's all right for now though - there is quite enough there for the first basic tests and once those are fine, I'll add gradually the rest of types too. There is little point in spending the time now to implement them all before I even got the chance to change my mind regarding *how* to implement them! So if you have a better implementation solution than the above, speak up in the comments section below and save me some time and a lot of headache! Note however that simplicity, clarity and hard guarantees are rather important here.

One small point on which I'm already rather undecided is whether to continue implementing the convenience methods for different types so that one can simply call ToNetworkFormat and FromNetworkFormat for anything or to leave only the generic methods at least for basic types. At the moment I incline towards providing all those methods (i.e. adding to the single pairof methods for the Integer_8 type defined above) because more complex types will likely need such methods anyway and moreover, this approach helps to keep all those casts (unchecked_conversion) in one place rather than scattered all through the rest of the code. However, it does add to the LOC count of this package. Anyway, moving further for now, the corresponding .adb file with the implementation of smg_comms_types:

  -- S.MG, 2018
  -- prototype implementation of S.MG communication protocol

with SMG_comms_types; use SMG_comms_types;
with System; use System; -- endianness
with Ada.Exceptions;
with Ada.Streams; use Ada.Streams;

package body SMG_comms_types is

  -- to and from network format (i.e. big endian, stream_element_array)
  procedure ToNetworkFormat(
      Item   : in Octet_Array;
      Buffer : out Stream_Element_Array) is
  begin
    if Item'Length /= Buffer'Length then
      raise Constraint_Error with "Item and Buffer lengths do NOT match!";
    end if;

    if Default_Bit_Order = Low_Order_First then
      for I in 0 .. Item'Length - 1 loop
        Buffer( Buffer'Last - Stream_Element_Offset(I) ) := Stream_Element(Item(Item'First + I));
      end loop;
    else
      for I in 0 .. Item'Length - 1 loop
        Buffer( Buffer'First + Stream_Element_Offset(I) ) := Stream_Element(Item(Item'First + I));
      end loop;
    end if;
  end ToNetworkFormat;

  procedure FromNetworkFormat(
      Buffer : in Stream_Element_Array;
      Item   : out Octet_Array) is
  begin
    if Item'Length /= Buffer'Length then
      raise Constraint_Error with "Buffer and Item length do NOT match!";
    end if;

    if Default_Bit_Order = Low_Order_First then
      for I in 0 .. Buffer'Length - 1 loop
        Item( Item'Last - I ) :=
          Unsigned_8( Buffer( Buffer'First + Stream_Element_Offset( I ) ) );
      end loop;
    else
      for I in 0 .. Buffer'Length - 1 loop
        Item( Item'First + I ) :=
          Unsigned_8( Buffer( Buffer'First + Stream_Element_Offset( I ) ) );
      end loop;
    end if;
  end FromNetworkFormat;

  -- Integer_8
  procedure ToNetworkFormat(
      Item   : in Integer_8;
      Buffer : out Stream_Element_Array) is
  begin
    ToNetworkFormat( Cast( Item ), Buffer );
  end ToNetworkFormat;
  procedure FromNetworkFormat(
      Buffer : in Stream_Element_Array;
      Item   : out Integer_8) is
    octets: Octets_1;
  begin
    FromNetworkFormat(Buffer, octets);
    Item := Cast( octets );
  end FromNetworkFormat;

end SMG_comms_types;

Something that irks me every time I look at the above: those for loops that convert octet by octet to Stream_Element. This is not only ugly but also rather inefficient, especially given that it's potentially the *second* time when those octets are read one by one (the first time being at the conversion from a protocol type - especially one of the more complex types - to an array of octets). However, I have no idea how to do that conversion from array of octets to array of Stream_Element in one single move! Do you know a better way to do this? A direct assign fails because the cast from one type to another would be on the array type rather than individual elements type. And I'm rather reluctant to work directly with Stream_Element as the basic type because this type is implementation dependent and outside my direct control - so I can't actually really know *what* it is.

The above being said regarding Stream_Element, it is important to note that the code above (and almost all the code for a network communication protocol) is anyway, strictly speaking, rather tightly linked to GNAT since it relies on Stream_Element being exactly 8 bits long. And to make this clear, here is the full trail I followed to make sure that I can indeed simply convert an octet (i.e. 8 bits) to a Stream_Element and the other way around while preserving exactly the number of bits specified in the protocol for each type: first, GNAT implements Stream_Element in a-stream.ads as follows:

type Stream_Element is mod 2 ** Standard'Storage_Unit;

Then, the definition of Standard'Storage_Unit for GNAT, which reads that Standard'Storage_Unit always has, according to the GNAT reference manual, the same value as System.Storage_Unit. In turn, System.Storage_Unit is indeed declared in GNAT's system.ads as a constant with value 8, so a Stream_Element in GNAT will indeed have exactly 8 bits:

Storage_Unit : constant := 8;

Moving on, the next step is to write the client-server part even if only a test version for now. Initially I took the easy way out here and simply wrote the separate server and client, each listening/sending one single packet. Running those on different machines worked perfectly fine. This is both fine and needed for a reasonable basic test of the whole thing, sure. However, at the moment as I'm just starting on this I'd rather *not* faff about with 2 machines each and every time I change or add something to this prototype protocol implementation. Moreover, this server/client part is perfect to experiment as well with threads4 in Ada - a topic that I'm still struggling to learn so perfect to practice! Therefore, in the basic test, server and client are implemented as different tasks (Ada's "threads") of the same main program - obviously, it follows that client and server will send data to one another on the same, local machine. This is of course not ideal nor sufficient as test in the long term but it'll do nicely for now and until the basic layer of the protocol at least is more fleshed out. The code in test_comms.adb:

 -- S.MG, 2018
 -- prototype implementation of S.MG communication protocol

with GNAT.Sockets; use GNAT.Sockets;
with Ada.Text_IO; use Ada.Text_IO;
with Ada.Streams; use Ada.Streams;
with Interfaces; use Interfaces;

with SMG_comms_types; use SMG_comms_types;

procedure test_comms is
  Port_No : constant := 2222;

  task type Client is
    entry Send;
  end Client;

  task type Server is
    entry Listen;
    entry Ready;
  end Server;

  task body Client is
    Sock: Socket_Type;
    Address: Sock_Addr_Type;
    Data: Ada.Streams.Stream_Element_Array(1..10) := (others => 42);
    Last: Ada.Streams.Stream_Element_Offset;
    N   : Integer_8 := -36;
  begin
    accept Send; -- task WILL block here until asked to send
    Address.Port := Port_No;
    Address.Addr := Inet_Addr("127.0.0.1");
    Create_Socket(Sock, Family_Inet, Socket_Datagram);

    ToNetworkFormat( N, Data(1..1));
    Send_Socket(Sock, Data, Last, Address);
    Put_Line("Client sent data " & "last: " & Last'Img);
  end Client;

  task body Server is
    Sock: Socket_Type;
    Address, From: Sock_Addr_Type;
    Data: Ada.Streams.Stream_Element_Array(1..512);
    Last: Ada.Streams.Stream_Element_Offset;
    N : Integer_8;
  begin
    accept Listen; -- wait to be started!
    Put_Line("Server started!");
    -- create UDP socket
    Create_Socket( Sock, Family_Inet, Socket_Datagram );

    -- set options on UDP socket
    Set_Socket_Option( Sock, Socket_Level, (Reuse_Address, True));
    Set_Socket_Option( Sock, Socket_Level, (Receive_Timeout, Timeout => 10.0));

    -- set address and bind
    Address.Addr := Any_Inet_Addr;
    Address.Port := Port_No;
    Bind_Socket( Sock, Address );

    accept Ready; -- server IS ready, when here
    -- receive on socket
    begin
      Receive_Socket( Sock, Data, Last, From );
      Put_Line("last: " & Last'Img);
      Put_Line("from: " & Image(From.Addr));
      Put_Line("data is:");
      for I in Data'First .. Last loop
        FromNetworkFormat(Data(I..I), N);
        Put_Line(N'Image);
      end loop;
    exception
      when Socket_Error =>
      Put_Line("Socket error! (timeout?)");
    end;  -- end of receive

  end Server;

  S: Server;
  C: Client;
begin
  S.Listen;
  S.Ready; -- WAIT for server to be ready!
  C.Send;  -- client is started only after server!
end test_comms;

Tasks in Ada can be defined as types as above. This is not mandatory - one can equally well simply define the tasks and they'll run in parallel with the main begin-end block. However, Task types are effectively needed if one wants to be able to explicitly and potentially dynamically create several workers of the same type. Since I'll need this later for sure, I might as well practice it at any occasion, so there they are, the Client Task type and Server Task type. To make sure that the server is ready *before* the client sends anything, I'm using the rendez-vous communication method that Ada provides: each "entry" of a task is basically a rendez-vous point between the task itself that "accepts" that entry at some specified point in its body and a caller task that "calls" that entry from outside. The main body of test_comms illustrates this: S and C start in parallel with the main body of test_comms but they both stop almost immediately as they wait on their first rendez-vous points (accept Listen for the Server type and accept Send for the Client type). The main body first calls S.Listen, effectively releasing the S (Server type) task from its wait. Immediately after that, the S.Ready entry is called so that now the main body is actually waiting for S to get to its "Ready" entry - basically to finish setting up the socket. Once S got to its Ready entry, the main body can go further and the next statement calls C.Send that releases the client for its wait. The client will send therefore its data and promptly finish, while the server (that was running in parallel all this time) will finally receive the data, process it and finish as well. Go ahead, give it ago and let me know if there's anything funny going on!

To compile all the above with one neat gprbuild call, there is of course a .gpr file:

-- S.MG, 2018
 -- prototype implementation of S.MG communication protocol
 -- http://trilema.com/2018/euloras-communication-protocol-restated/

project SMG_comms is
  for Languages use ("Ada");

  for Source_Dirs use ("src");
  for Ignore_Source_Sub_Dirs use (".svn", ".git", "@*");

  for Object_Dir use "obj";
  for Exec_Dir use ".";

  for Main use ("test_comms.adb");

  package Builder is
    for Executable ("test_comms.adb") use "test_comms";
  end Builder;

  package Compiler is
    for Default_Switches ("Ada") use ("-O2");
  end Compiler;

end SMG_comms;

An example of running the test_comms executable produced by gprbuild:

smg_comms$ ./test_comms
Server started!
Client sent data last:  10
last:  10
from: 127.0.0.1
data is:
-36
 42
 42
 42
 42
 42
 42
 42
 42
 42
smg_comms$

On a slightly different note, I had a bit of an internal debate on whether it's appropriate or not to still release this as a V tree given that it's work in progress and absolutely nowhere near a reference object of any sort or even a fully working item. I came to view V however as simply a versioning system rather than a "set in stone only the end products" sort of thing - for that matter what end products anyway, it's at most, in the happiest of situations, seed products rather than end products. So all the above code is the genesis of smg_comms and it's simply a tiny, far from perfect seed that will hopefully grow into something useful while preserving in its v-tree the whole history of that growth:


  1. Due to a large extent to ave1's work on forcing it into some useful shape so that it builds on a sane, musl-based system. 

  2. The Socket_Datagram mode to be set for UDP communications is at least mentioned in the examples although the rest of differences in effectively comunicating something are left to be discovered. 

  3. My Ada reference book is Barnes, John, "Programming in Ada 2012", Cambridge University Press, 2016, ISBN 978-1-107-42481-4. 

  4. On-demand, resilient threads are crucial for Eulora's server and I'm not yet confident at all that I really fully grasp Ada's mechanisms so I'm pushing it to the front, reading on it and otherwise banging my head on it at any and all occasions - how else to figure it out faster? 

August 4, 2018

A Collection of Pearls as Well as Ever Sadder Epitaphs

Filed under: Open Sores — Diana Coman @ 11:39 p.m.

Motto: Gura pacatosului, adevar graieste.

Deep inside the muck that passes for code among the open source tribes, there are pearls left not before the swine but rather plainly after them1. Like any pearls, they are the fruit of pain avoided and postponed, the signs of the beginning of defeat, the ever sadder epitaphs:

//@@@ Dirty, hack, this might be in a diffrent thread
//@@@ need to syncronize this in some way. But at least
//@@@ by moving this here the client code dosn't call
//@@@ SendOut anymore.

Oh, how truthful it starts, for it is indeed dirty and a hack and it "might be" something else "in some way" - that way being of course if only someone else wrote it! "But at least" it's written there and then never read or acted upon again of course, for how else would code be muck and shit accumulate at such tremendous speeds to make all those half a million lines of code?

 // REVERTED 3/8/03 Until I can figure out why this is causing client conencts to fail - Andrew Mann (Rhad)
// If we don't know who this connection is, don't handle ACKs
//if (!connection)
// return false;

It's 2018 and I'm sure he has figured it all out by now, right? The best way to figure things out is by avoiding them. Only for now, only a bit, only in "some way", only temporarily, of course. OF COURSE. And the best way to clean your house is by sweeping the dust under the carpet, don't you know?

// XXX: This is hacky, but we need to send the message to the client
// here and now! Because in the next moment he'll be deleted

"Where there is a need there is a right" or how did it go? The fact that you *need* to send a message in an ill-suited place at the wrong time to an idiot client and so on are ALL signs of problems to be sorted out not reasons for piling the shit higher and higher!

 // TODO: Hack, for now just get the y value and sector from the first point.

There, the great discovery of this year's lazy bums just as lazy as last year's lazy asses: don't do today what you can postpone indefinitely! And if it's on a todo list, then it doesn't need to actually be done! If I write that I'll do it then it's just as good as if I did it and way less work so it's win-win-me, isn't it? Especially since nobody will dare laugh at me for it since that's discrimination and a big no-no and I'll get all upset and they'll hurt my feelings.

// HACK TO GET AROUND BAD INCLUSION OF PSCHARACTER.H IN DRMESSAGE.H KWF

This one truly reminds me of a children's story: a granny was once asked how many people were there at the party she had just attended. And she truthfully replied: only 1 person; for there was an old dirty barrel blocking the entrance and everyone got around it except for this last man who actually moved the barrel out of the way and only then got in.

What can I tell you, they used to teach this stuff in kindergarten!

 // Hack to work around the weird sector stuff we do.

This is the very way hacks reproduce until there is nothing left but a big pile of hacks precariously stacked on one another all the way to the moon. The hack because of the hack because of the hack because of the... Just stop hacking already and clean the darned shit from your house, you know? Why do you keep shitting where you eat?

// Special case for string, because we have to specify the namespace
// std::string, which doesn't play nicely with our FLAG__namespace hackery.

Hack and... counter-hack! If hacking breeding more hacking and shit growing up to your eyeballs wasn't already clearly and plainly the only result of this insanity. What does it take for you to stop this stupid approach with the special case for the extraordinary situation of the most unique item on the singularity of shit?

/* hack: if we included OpenSSL's ssl.h, we know about SSL_CTX
* this will of course break if we're included before OpenSSL headers...
*/

You know it's broken but you ... do it anyway? The once inconceivable, the un-human, is that the modern human? Why, just why would anyone do such a thing knowingly?

/** @@@ Hack: please someone tell me how to do this better? */

Perhaps one of the saddest of them all: he is asking, you know? Perhaps in the wrong place, perhaps poorly stated, perhaps at the wrong moment, perhaps even only half-hearted but nevertheless... he asks for some guidance away from the swamps! But who answers, who is there to even read his comments at least if not his code? Of all the thousands pairs of eyes, none even blinks in recognition, not even once and the question remains there unanswered, the hack stays in place, the cry for help goes unheard and unnoticed for there is nobody to hear it. The thousands pairs of eyes stare without seeing anything for they are all little more than painted eyes on painted masks on painted cardboard in the painted world. Pure insanity this brave new world, the very stuff nightmares are made out of.

There truly is no worse loneliness than the loneliness of those trying to be people while lost among the crowds. For crowds are never, ever, people. And more importantly perhaps, out of necessity, crowds will always and invariably choose to mend and make do, just as reflected in all those comments above, never to clear away the rot that is left therefore to accumulate and fester and stink and drown everything. So next time *you* make your choice between the expensive exposure and fix of the rot on one hand and the mend and make do on the other, think perhaps also of that loneliness of the person in the crowd and of what it truly means to be - to become! - only one of the many, many identical pairs of unseeing eyes in the crowd.


 


  1. Hey, swine have rights too! What are you getting offended about? 

July 14, 2018

Cutting MySQL into Musl Shape

Filed under: Coding — Diana Coman @ 3:40 p.m.

As I'm apparently the adventurous type or in fewer words an ice-breaker, I got to see all the ways in which MySQL fails to compile on a musltronic1 gentoo2. Note that there aren't that many versions of MySQL that portage knows about in the first place (exactly 5 versions: 5.5.60, 5.6.38, 5.6.39, 5.6.40, 5.7.22), mainly because of the nonsense proposition that "oh, we moved on to something new and shiny on which we got to stick another label and another name, be it mariadb". To quote specifically from mariadb itself when built3:

* Starting with version 10.1.8, MariaDB includes an improved systemd unit named mariadb.service
* You should prefer that unit over this package's mysqld.service.

Do you hear that? I won't even touch on the systemd nonsense but just read over and over again that part that says *you should prefer that unit* and nothing more. And tell me how can one write such a thing in the configuration files of a piece of software and then still have claim to ever be given the time of the day, not to mention to not being laughed out of town. And note that being laughed out of town is the best case there because frankly I find that offensive like hell rather than funny in the least.

Anyway, discarding with much pleasure the thing that "everyone" says I should prefer, here are the ways in which the various MySQL versions fail to emerge:

5.5.60: this version of MySQL pulls in openssl no matter what; even when libressl flag is added; even when -openssl is specifically added too; I just couldn't get it to leave openssl alone and so it's totally dead in the water. Not to mention that openssl then conflicts with libressl, so it's totally out of the question. RIP.

5.6.38: this was the preferred version so it was tried first, with a mask on anything greater than this aka >dev-db/mysql-5.6.38 written in /etc/portage/package.mask; it fails to compile because deep inside mysql code the stacktrace.c file relies on some thd_lib_detected variable and THD_LIB_LT constant to find out what implementation of threads it is running with. It was the first time I even saw those 2 things, a grep in MySQL code did NOT turn them anywhere else and then a quick dive into docs and everything else failed to find them anywhere *else* than in MySQL code. So I'm not even sure where are they meant to be set exactly, but given how the code compiles fine on a glibc system and fails miserably on the Musl system, I suspect it's some glibc-specific approach that got baked into this tiny corner of MySQL. Big mistake for the tiny corner, since the solution is to cut it away, of course. Anyway, the fail:

/var/tmp/portage/dev-db/mysql-5.6.38/work/mysql/mysys/stacktrace.c: In function 'my_print_stacktrace':
/var/tmp/portage/dev-db/mysql-5.6.38/work/mysql/mysys/stacktrace.c:360:27:
error: 'thd_lib_detected' undeclared (first use in this function)
sigreturn_frame_count = thd_lib_detected == THD_LIB_LT ? 2 : 1;
^
/var/tmp/portage/dev-db/mysql-5.6.38/work/mysql/mysys/stacktrace.c:360:27:
note: each undeclared identifier is reported only once for each function it appears in
/var/tmp/portage/dev-db/mysql-5.6.38/work/mysql/mysys/stacktrace.c:360:47:
error: 'THD_LIB_LT' undeclared (first use in this function)
sigreturn_frame_count = thd_lib_detected == THD_LIB_LT ? 2 : 1;

5.6.39: this is the version pulled by portage without any masking or keywords; it fails just like 5.6.38 with loud complaints about the unknown thd_lib constant & variable:

/var/tmp/portage/dev-db/mysql-5.6.39/work/mysql/mysys/stacktrace.c:360:27:
error: 'thd_lib_detected' undeclared (first use in this function)
sigreturn_frame_count = thd_lib_detected == THD_LIB_LT ? 2 : 1;
^
/var/tmp/portage/dev-db/mysql-5.6.39/work/mysql/mysys/stacktrace.c:360:27:
note: each undeclared identifier is reported only once for each function it appears in
/var/tmp/portage/dev-db/mysql-5.6.39/work/mysql/mysys/stacktrace.c:360:47:
error: 'THD_LIB_LT' undeclared (first use in this function)
sigreturn_frame_count = thd_lib_detected == THD_LIB_LT ? 2 : 1;

5.6.40: this fails quite the same as the 5.6.38 and 5.6.49 above:

/var/tmp/portage/dev-db/mysql-5.6.40/work/mysql/mysys/stacktrace.c: In function 'my_print_stacktrace':
/var/tmp/portage/dev-db/mysql-5.6.40/work/mysql/mysys/stacktrace.c:360:27:
error: 'thd_lib_detected' undeclared (first use in this function)
sigreturn_frame_count = thd_lib_detected == THD_LIB_LT ? 2 : 1;
^
/var/tmp/portage/dev-db/mysql-5.6.40/work/mysql/mysys/stacktrace.c:360:27:
note: each undeclared identifier is reported only once for each function it appears in
/var/tmp/portage/dev-db/mysql-5.6.40/work/mysql/mysys/stacktrace.c:360:47:
error: 'THD_LIB_LT' undeclared (first use in this function)
sigreturn_frame_count = thd_lib_detected == THD_LIB_LT ? 2 : 1;

5.7.22: this version requires the ~amd64 keywords on my proto-cuntoo so it's supposedly "at your own risk" grade. It fails at configuration stage with CMake barfing about a lack of mysys timer:

CMake Error at configure.cmake:573 (MESSAGE):
No mysys timer support detected!
Call Stack (most recent call first):
CMakeLists.txt:451 (INCLUDE)

And then I threw my hands up in despair at it all, took the plunge into MySQL code and Gentoo's very useful ebuild command4, cut away the misbehaving part and had the pleasant surprise that it was actually enough to make the whole thing work! After which I spent of course another few hours just checking the whole thing through because by now I am very, very suspicious when it's relatively easy to fix something.

The good news is that MySQL can be made to work on a musltronic system with just a small snip of the "safe printing" of a stacktrace - as I'm not terribly concerned at this time about MySQL's own stacktrace printing, I didn't really spend the time to *fix* the code although I'm sure it can be done with a bit of study of threads in Musl. For now though I am content to just delete that code and yes, have a MySQL that won't print its stacktrace. Specifically, here are the steps to get MySQL going on a proto-cuntoo system:

1. Get the source code by instructing ebuild to "fetch":

ebuild /usr/portage/dev-db/mysql/mysql-5.6.38.ebuild fetch

2. Unpack it:

ebuild /usr/portage/dev-db/mysql/mysql-5.6.38.ebuild unpack

3. Simply delete the contents of method my_print_stacktrace(uchar* stack_bottom, ulong thread_stack)  in /var/tmp/portage/dev-db/mysql-5.6.39/work/mysql/mysys/stacktrace.c and save the file. Leave the empty shell of the method there since it IS called (yes, I checked). Ideally one would fix the code I guess, but atm I really don't see this worth the time since the moment mysql fails that badly I seriously doubt I'll want to spend the time investigating its stack trace - it's more likely I'll throw it out the window entirely. At any rate, as this is not a "fix" by any measure, I'm not making it into a patch so you'll have to run through those steps rather than just emerge.

4. With the code thus modified, ask ebuild to go ahead and compile, install and then merge the result into the live file system, so three different commands to be run one at a time:

ebuild /usr/portage/dev-db/mysql/mysql-5.6.38.ebuild compile
ebuild /usr/portage/dev-db/mysql/mysql-5.6.38.ebuild install
ebuild /usr/portage/dev-db/mysql/mysql-5.6.38.ebuild qmerge

5. It's done; run your usual emerge --config=dev-db/mysql-5.6.38 and set the root password, create databases and users, as you need.

And there it is, I can happily report that MySQL 5.6.38 is now compiling and running quite happily on a fully musltronic system!


  1. Aka Musl-based rather than glibc-inflated. 

  2. Also known as proto-cuntoo since that's exactly what it is: an alpha version of trinque's cuntoo.  

  3. Yes, I built this one too and it builds fine. No, I won't use it though. 

  4. Man page for ebuild most recommended read! 

July 10, 2018

Some Branching Troubles on Existing V Trees

Filed under: Coding — Diana Coman @ 10:03 p.m.

In theory - when there IS a theory! - everything is neat, simple and takes almost no time1. Today's everything started similarly neat and simple with a clear goal that was not meant to take much time: finding a better home for my Keccak implementation.

To clarify the issue here: currently Keccak is part of EuCrypt mainly because at the time of its implementation there simply was no better place for it. But meanwhile phf integrated Keccak into his vtools, esthlos is actively searching for the best way to use Keccak hashes as part of his own V implementation and Arjen (ave1) has released a zero foot print (ZFP) library that is delightfully effective at eliminating bloat. And on top of all this, V itself is moving forward with more clarity and better practices: there shall be a manifest file, there shall be Keccak hashes instead of sha512. Combined, all those developments really point and prod at the simple fact: Keccak both needs and can get a better home now - namely a home as a branch off ave1's zfp tree!

Branching off an existing V tree is meant to be a straightforward task: press the original tree to the desired leaf, add SMG.Keccak, produce new patch, test that it sits indeed at desired place in the tree and it presses fine, write it all up, release and enjoy. But it didn't take long to get into trouble:

  1. To start with, it turned out that current Keccak can not yet use ZFP because its OAEP wrapper requires Interfaces.C and ZFP does not yet support it. Nevertheless, this is noted and added to the README next to the code but it's not in itself a game stopper: the runtime library to be used is anyway specified with the --RTS switch when invoking gprbuild so there is no need to change anything at a later time when ZFP supports Interfaces.C; moreover, the OAEP wrapper is really just a convenience wrapper so it can be removed if the user desires a stripped down pure Keccak in Ada.
  2. Then, vtools and v.pl seemed to not want to play nice together and they sputtered all sorts - this was the easy part to solve though as it turned out I had forgotten to chop the vtools branches properly and keep only one set of patches. Thanks to spyked and phf (and via the logs of course), the needed jolt to my memory was provided, the previous log discussion found and linked, the problem solved: as a result, I had again (as I even remembered I used to have at some other point) the spiffy2 vtools working smoothly and producing the desired Keccak-hashed vpatch.
  3. And then it turned out that I can't quite attach my shiny new vpatch to ave1's tree because my vpatch uses Keccak hashes while his other vpatches are still using sha512 and the combination is of course rather unsanitary.
  4. Adding to the above, I also have quite some trouble in finding a way to properly attach my Keccak patch to the current leaf in ave1's simple tree. Since there isn't a manifest file, I can't take the easy route of not even worrying about this issue and simply add the corresponding line for my patch to this file, knowing it'll come neatly after the current leaf. And it turns out that the difficult solution of making sure I change some file changed by the current leaf is also rather dubious because zfp_2_noc.vpatch changes only a few code files that Keccak really has NO business whatsoever in touching *at all*.
  5. A relatively minor issue by comparison with the ones above but still promising to give headache in the future is the fact that current zfp doesn't actually have its own top directory. So where exactly should I plonk smg_keccak folder in there?

What can I do?


  1. There's a reason many people like theories, especially at a safe distance from practice. 

  2. It's Stanislav's term but it fits best here! 

June 26, 2018

Eulora's Own CR50

Filed under: Eulora — Diana Coman @ 9:29 p.m.

Possibly similar to the CR50 item Stanislav has been torturing recently, a green "Microchip" of unknown internals and dubious usefulness has finally been teased out of the reluctant and downright hostile Euloran soil. It took only a bit more than 3 years of pounding said soil.

On the plus side, it seems to be quite valuable at somewhere around 110`000 ECu (aka 11`000 satoshi atm) base value. On the more usual *other* side, there is no known use for it at the moment1 and it came out very low quality too, not to mention potentially booby trapped for all one knows:

Eulora's own CR50! Microchip!!1

The floating Microchips!

At any rate, I hereby dedicate this very first lot of Microchips to Stanislav Datskovskiy. May all his quests be successful and take considerably less than it took me to find this item!


  1. It wasn't needed until now, which is of course "no indication of future performance". 

June 15, 2018

EuCrypt Manifest File

Filed under: EuCrypt — Diana Coman @ 2:09 p.m.

~ This is part of the EuCrypt series. Start with Introducing EuCrypt. ~

This little patch simply adds a manifest file to EuCrypt so that the intended order of patches is made explicit, easily accessible and easily maintained throughout the life of the project even as new patches are added by others (hopefully). I've created this file following the manifest format specification proposed by Michael Trinque. For each patch, I used the block count1 as reported by mimisbrunnr on the day when I published the patch.

Since I publish this as a .vpatch on top of existing EuCrypt itself, there is of course a line in the manifest file for this vpatch too. To keep it nicely flowing from the previous last leaf of EuCrypt, there is an additonal change to the README file of the project as well (since it's this file I have used so far, before the manifest solution was adopted, as an implicit way of forcing some meaningful order on the vpatches).

As usual, the .vpatch and its signatures can be found on my Reference Code Shelf and are also linked directly from here for your convenience:


  1. Starting with last round number on that day so as to have some space for the case when there were several patches on same day. 

June 10, 2018

Chasing the Elusive Euloran Quality

Filed under: Eulora — Diana Coman @ 3:45 p.m.

Quality of items in Eulora is a big thing - it brings in more money for whoever can deliver it and it also gives one better dings. Or at least better chances at better dings1, it would seem. Welcome to the murky shores of Eulora, this land open to all and totally opaque to most2.

The most recent update3 was cheered for finally making it possible to actually do expensive stuff in a few minutes as opposed to a few months. After which there was silence and renewed confusion as to what is what and how much any darned thing is worth. Quite a lot of discussion ensued in the #eulora irc chan although mainly between me and Mircea Popescu as the rest of the veteran players4 seem to either have no clue or have no appetite for talking at this stage. Hopefully they'll find one if not both at some later point before totally sinking out of sight, unknown and unmissed for lack of actually being there, who knows.

While discussions in logs are all fine and good, they tend to be difficult to find and retrieve at a later time. So for my own future needs and potentially for others' use, I'd rather jot down here a few data points on all this. The most recent problem is that apparently *everything* works now as a quality sink: mining eats up crafted items of 4k quality to give back harvestables at 900q while crafting wants also to eat harvestables at 900q to possibly give something back at all (not even clear if >900q, at that; a reported craft that "almost works" brings down q from 90 to 84). After all sorts of experiments with my team of noob and not-so-noob helpers, I suggested that people might simply be approaching the issue here from the wrong end, a sort of trying to dig their way out of the hole instead of making a ladder to climb back up. I know that a big-enough dig can indeed get one out of any hole through the other side, but Eulora's rather short on shovels at this very moment5. So how about that ladder then? It starts with more experimenting and concrete data, such as this, collected over only a few crafting runs of Slag (base value 677):

 

Tinkering Rank Sortage Rank Blueprint Quality Bundle Quality Output
1265 448 133 664 0 Slag + TPF q401
1265 448 67 664 0 Slag + TPF q285
1265 448 1 664 4-5 Slag + TPF q32
245 77 133 664 2 Slag q213 +TPF
245 77 67 664 3 Slag q151 + TPF
74 67 133 664 2 Slag q198 + TPF
74 67 67 664 4 Slag q141 + TPF

All the runs had remarkably similar results (same quality always, same number of slag items always except where it appears in table as 4-5 i.e. sometimes 4, sometimes 5) so I simply recorded one result for each combination. The bundles there are all identical and made by the highest skilled crafter as she can pack most value into the bundle. Specifically, each bundle is made out of 17 Flotsam q192 and 11 Shiny Rock 187q. For one thing, this suggests that the highest crafter packs the ingredients for almost 4 slags into one single bundle. For the other, it means that any output < 190q is anyway a sink of quality, no matter how one looks at it. And looking at it, there is some support on both points: 4 slags are reliably obtained by highest skilled crafter with a blueprint of lowest quality possible, 1. They are however q32 meaning that quality was severely lost in the process. When quality is not lost by the highest skilled crafter, it is however totally transfered to numina it would seem: all output is numina and no slag at all.

Considering the results of the other two crafters, the most interesting part is that they can actually get Slag of higher quality than the inputs that went in: for the same ~q190 harvestables used as input, they get reliably outputs >q150, even close to q200 in one combination! So for one thing it's certainly NOT true that crafting is a sink of quality, quite on the contrary: it clearly creates quality of output - the only trouble is however to match the sort of output one wants (i.e. product not so much numina at the moment).

The even more interesting bit suggested by this teeny tiny amount of data is with respect to just how much of the actual value going in is then obtained back as Slag rather than numina. The input value is roughly 677*6.64 = 4495 ignoring the value of the blueprint (which is not much at 67*1.33 maximum in there). Highly skilled crafter gets precisely 0 in Slag out of this and all of it in numina unless they go for low quality when they get between 4*677*0.32=866 and 5*677*0.32=1083 so anyway about a quarter maximum. By contrast, middle level crafter gets 2*677*2.13=2884 or 3*677*1.51=3066 at lower quality so about 70% of the input value. And lower level crafter gets even more at their lower quality 4*677*1.41=3818 (or 2*677*1.98=2680 for their higher quality).

Before jumping to any conclusions, I'll add that I'm quite sure that the data captured there (i.e. Tinkering and Sortage skill ranks, blueprint quality, bundle quality, item) is quite unlikely to really capture ALL factors that influence the outcome. For one thing I can tell for instance from long experience with those characters involved that the highest skilled crafter tends to be rather unlucky in everything she does, while the middle skilled crafter tends to be quite the opposite - lucky and then some more.

With the above caveats in mind and other potential limitations quite obvious6, a conclusion is to be drawn and that is that at least on such low base value items beginner and middle level crafters are actually in a very good position to bump up quality and make a killing - if only they do buy the bundles of a highly skilled crafter! In turn, their output is likely to actually help highly skilled crafters as it gives them more quality as input for more valuable crafts presumably.

As for the highly skilled crafter, it would seem to me that she would really need to somehow pack in at least 4 times the value of Slag at her output quality of 401 in order to stand a chance of getting q401 Slag. That means she needs a bundle of 4*677*4.01=10859 so about 3 times more than what she made for this little experiment. Either she gets that from an even higher crafter (who can pack more of same q harvestables into one bundle) or she uses harvestables at quality at least 600 by the looks of it. Good luck with that my lovely, as q600 harvestables will come at a hefty premium at least from my wares - if they even come at all as it's not all that clear at this moment that such stocks can be replenished if used!

Other than that: isn't it marvelous how much one can get even from only a few numbers? If only they do bother to get those numbers in the first place, of course...


  1. The term of art in Eulora is "pop" as in "1002mn pop, wow!" i.e. you put in 10mn and got 1002mn out of it, you lucky bastard. 

  2. That post was written in 2015, yes. Not much changed since then in terms of players' understanding of Eulora's actual workings it would seem. Poor Eulora, so totally incomprehensible, so entirely misunderstood... 

  3. 'Tis not even by far the only update Eulora went through so far. And all updates introduce changes that so far seem to mess up players' previous plans something fierce. 

  4. Noobs have yet some other things to figure out before standing much chance with this really. 

  5. And since I'm not that young anymore in Eulora either, I can tell you that I've subsidized this sort of approach at least once before and I don't want to do it again, ever. It was costly, very very costly. 

  6. Very small sample is the most obvious but you really are better off thinking for yourself on this. 

June 5, 2018

The Lack of Dust - A Very Euloran Problem

Filed under: Eulora — Diana Coman @ 6:23 p.m.

Collected Dusts in Eulora are a thing - a very useful and currently very much required thing. Consequently, according to the usual Euloran workings, Collected Dusts are also... rather sorely needed and totally missing from the market. In other words, Collected Dusts are hard to get, needed by the ton, while also unknown as to actual value - the usual stuff. And so Foxy set up to... get those1, since she is anyway best at Lapidary2.

At first, the recent update seemed as if it might help for once - first level numina such as Dusts are normally obtained as a byproduct of crafting in the respective line. That would mean that one gets tons of Dusts simply by clicking something in the Bouquinism line. And that is... true of sorts but the trouble is that Bouquinism is a bit special and most of its items give stuff-other-than-numina (blueprints mostly). Moreover, while the recent update seems to have turned skilled crafters' clicks into mainly-numina-producing clicks, this does not really hold for Bouquinism! Click on Maculature and instead of loads of Dusts, one still gets loads of... Little Bits O' Nothing. What do?

Well, whenever the rule doesn't work, one needs to find... the exception, of course. For various definitions of find that might involve workarounds and workthroughs and workaboves and workbeyonds and workinbetweens - more generally speaking: WORK. So work it is then, onwards! In this case the work is mainly to figure out how to make mites in large quantities through lots of smaller clicks since apparently I don't have enough input stuff to get more than a few mites through huge-quality single click sort of thing.

First, I tried all sorts of combination-clicking on Maculature in the vain hope that Bouquinism might still sort-of-work like the rest and spit some Dusts: high q bundle with total noob -> ton of LBN (Little Bits O' Nothing) and nothing else; high q bundle with high q bp (recipe) and Foxy's click -> ton of Nothing just the same; you name it, I tried it -> no, nope and nono.

Second, I made then some Bird's Nest and Gin, poured it over that WPL3 that nobody wanted yesterday but wanted today4. That made the ECV5 in tiny quantities and ...DUSTS! In... some quantities because on one hand I did get a few thousands of them but on the other hand Foxy needs at least 3300 for one single Lapidary click that makes usually only about 20-30 Mites so by this measure... still totally and utterly stuck (and no, making some million of Bird's Nest and Gin is not a useful "solution"). What do?

Third, I got a total noob to look at Foxy's Toil recipes (the ones that make Mites out of Dusts). And what do you know? Noob can make a bundle with one single Dust and one single WOA (Water of Anamnesia - another thing that seems to be rather wanted and in short supply at the moment). So noob was set with the bundling bot to make a few hundred bundles that came out an actually reasonable ~1300 quality because Foxy's Dusts are high quality and Foxy's ancient WOA are ALSO high quality. Wonderful, except for a teeny tiny problem: clicking a 1300 quality bundle with a high quality Toil bp seems to end up for Foxy in... no Mites, only Gem Dusts (Lapidary numina). On the other hand, clicking it with the noob gets Mites, but poor, sickly and stinky ones - frightfully low quality, not to mention basically wasting all that Lapidary experience on the unsuspecting noob. Once again: WHAT do?

Fourth, got the big mixing guns out of Foxybot: blueprint quality doesn't have to be huge if one also has6 quality 1 blueprints of the same type! Some many clicks and 2000 mixings later, there we go, found some sort of combination that works! Foxy reliably gets at least 10 mites per click - not to mention many more when she pops or mini-pops - at a quality above 500 and she has *hundreds* of bundles and blueprints to click right now!

And the cherry on the above delightful cake is that it takes only 2 of those clicks for Foxy to rank up in Lapidary. Combined with the bot's powerful crafting-with-bundle7, she basically got 100 ranks up in one hour today and scooped up the book-prize for being first to reach 600 rank in Lapidary!

Onwards and upwards, let's reach that 800 Lapidary before tomorrow's update 'cause I'll be busy mining: there are new problems to solve, troubles to find and generally millions of coins waiting to be picked up, scooped out, teased away from Eulora! If only, of course... you actually work at knowing how to do such a feat. Do you?


  1. By now I can say I have a thing for... prickly problems let's call them, what can I do. 

  2. The crafting line that works on numina such as Dusts, transforming it from lower levels to higher levels (e.g. from Dusts to Mites and so on). 

  3. Worthless Putrid Leather 

  4. Ha, HA! 

  5. Extremely Creaky Vellum 

  6. by means of previous noob-clicking, at another time, there's nothing totally useless if only done correctly in Eulora, you know? 

  7. No, you don't have this working anymore? Awww. The help and the code have been there for ages, waiting for... you . Where have you been? 

June 4, 2018

Rocking Fuckgoats on the Rock-chip

Filed under: Coding — Diana Coman @ 2:27 p.m.

My very own gem-like Rockchip machine leased from the very friendly Pizarro1 comes of course with an excellent Fuckgoat source of randomness from my favourite hardware producer, No Such Labs. How else would it even really qualify as a useful computer without access to at least one FG? And since this Rockchip is more or less a testing ground of all sorts for me and for now, here are the results of 3 test-runs (ent and dieharder applied to 3 different 3.0G files of FG output):

Run 1
ent output:

Entropy = 8.000000 bits per byte.

Optimum compression would reduce the size
of this 3145728000 byte file by 0 percent.

Chi square distribution for 3145728000 samples is 301.70, and randomly
would exceed this value 2.37 percent of the times.

Arithmetic mean value of data bytes is 127.5014 (127.5 = random).
Monte Carlo value for Pi is 3.141654373 (error 0.00 percent).
Serial correlation coefficient is 0.000020 (totally uncorrelated = 0.0).

dieharder output:

#=============================================================================#
#            dieharder version 3.31.1 Copyright 2003 Robert G. Brown          #
#=============================================================================#
   rng_name    |           filename             |rands/second|
 file_input_raw|                         fg1.bin|  5.55e+06  |
#=============================================================================#
        test_name   |ntup| tsamples |psamples|  p-value |Assessment
#=============================================================================#
   diehard_birthdays|   0|       100|     100|0.55364402|  PASSED
      diehard_operm5|   0|   1000000|     100|0.77308483|  PASSED
  diehard_rank_32x32|   0|     40000|     100|0.39821868|  PASSED
    diehard_rank_6x8|   0|    100000|     100|0.43441145|  PASSED
   diehard_bitstream|   0|   2097152|     100|0.24694838|  PASSED
        diehard_opso|   0|   2097152|     100|0.79287254|  PASSED
        diehard_oqso|   0|   2097152|     100|0.10727946|  PASSED
         diehard_dna|   0|   2097152|     100|0.71618516|  PASSED
diehard_count_1s_str|   0|    256000|     100|0.14310424|  PASSED
diehard_count_1s_byt|   0|    256000|     100|0.06331660|  PASSED
 diehard_parking_lot|   0|     12000|     100|0.07270933|  PASSED
    diehard_2dsphere|   2|      8000|     100|0.55501201|  PASSED
    diehard_3dsphere|   3|      4000|     100|0.14071812|  PASSED
     diehard_squeeze|   0|    100000|     100|0.72435262|  PASSED
        diehard_sums|   0|       100|     100|0.52920652|  PASSED
        diehard_runs|   0|    100000|     100|0.71532176|  PASSED
        diehard_runs|   0|    100000|     100|0.04142495|  PASSED
       diehard_craps|   0|    200000|     100|0.60495179|  PASSED
       diehard_craps|   0|    200000|     100|0.13140280|  PASSED
 marsaglia_tsang_gcd|   0|  10000000|     100|0.98053930|  PASSED
 marsaglia_tsang_gcd|   0|  10000000|     100|0.30154457|  PASSED
         sts_monobit|   1|    100000|     100|0.70277769|  PASSED
            sts_runs|   2|    100000|     100|0.72995953|  PASSED
          sts_serial|   1|    100000|     100|0.07480821|  PASSED
          sts_serial|   2|    100000|     100|0.43219474|  PASSED
          sts_serial|   3|    100000|     100|0.95572839|  PASSED
          sts_serial|   3|    100000|     100|0.05183212|  PASSED
          sts_serial|   4|    100000|     100|0.86243828|  PASSED
          sts_serial|   4|    100000|     100|0.54979184|  PASSED
          sts_serial|   5|    100000|     100|0.99943852|   WEAK
          sts_serial|   5|    100000|     100|0.98416336|  PASSED
          sts_serial|   6|    100000|     100|0.41224989|  PASSED
          sts_serial|   6|    100000|     100|0.23138405|  PASSED
          sts_serial|   7|    100000|     100|0.37811898|  PASSED
          sts_serial|   7|    100000|     100|0.68995575|  PASSED
          sts_serial|   8|    100000|     100|0.32399498|  PASSED
          sts_serial|   8|    100000|     100|0.68248678|  PASSED
          sts_serial|   9|    100000|     100|0.52331440|  PASSED
          sts_serial|   9|    100000|     100|0.61259715|  PASSED
          sts_serial|  10|    100000|     100|0.40033877|  PASSED
          sts_serial|  10|    100000|     100|0.84566398|  PASSED
          sts_serial|  11|    100000|     100|0.48551729|  PASSED
          sts_serial|  11|    100000|     100|0.63831521|  PASSED
          sts_serial|  12|    100000|     100|0.77176883|  PASSED
          sts_serial|  12|    100000|     100|0.77784212|  PASSED
          sts_serial|  13|    100000|     100|0.93553942|  PASSED
          sts_serial|  13|    100000|     100|0.33559759|  PASSED
          sts_serial|  14|    100000|     100|0.27845394|  PASSED
          sts_serial|  14|    100000|     100|0.26469467|  PASSED
          sts_serial|  15|    100000|     100|0.94553460|  PASSED
          sts_serial|  15|    100000|     100|0.86955787|  PASSED
          sts_serial|  16|    100000|     100|0.52513415|  PASSED
          sts_serial|  16|    100000|     100|0.75823923|  PASSED
         rgb_bitdist|   1|    100000|     100|0.93155438|  PASSED
         rgb_bitdist|   2|    100000|     100|0.81178456|  PASSED
         rgb_bitdist|   3|    100000|     100|0.96463454|  PASSED
         rgb_bitdist|   4|    100000|     100|0.25858769|  PASSED
         rgb_bitdist|   5|    100000|     100|0.87115232|  PASSED
         rgb_bitdist|   6|    100000|     100|0.32606816|  PASSED
         rgb_bitdist|   7|    100000|     100|0.06276018|  PASSED
         rgb_bitdist|   8|    100000|     100|0.80690784|  PASSED
         rgb_bitdist|   9|    100000|     100|0.43129323|  PASSED
         rgb_bitdist|  10|    100000|     100|0.26529646|  PASSED
         rgb_bitdist|  11|    100000|     100|0.83773896|  PASSED
         rgb_bitdist|  12|    100000|     100|0.76575354|  PASSED
rgb_minimum_distance|   2|     10000|    1000|0.25694562|  PASSED
rgb_minimum_distance|   3|     10000|    1000|0.01512658|  PASSED
rgb_minimum_distance|   4|     10000|    1000|0.57060500|  PASSED
rgb_minimum_distance|   5|     10000|    1000|0.49218844|  PASSED
    rgb_permutations|   2|    100000|     100|0.29144608|  PASSED
    rgb_permutations|   3|    100000|     100|0.15806101|  PASSED
    rgb_permutations|   4|    100000|     100|0.28135408|  PASSED
    rgb_permutations|   5|    100000|     100|0.50106116|  PASSED
      rgb_lagged_sum|   0|   1000000|     100|0.11294777|  PASSED
      rgb_lagged_sum|   1|   1000000|     100|0.97600408|  PASSED
      rgb_lagged_sum|   2|   1000000|     100|0.88053766|  PASSED
      rgb_lagged_sum|   3|   1000000|     100|0.64089472|  PASSED
      rgb_lagged_sum|   4|   1000000|     100|0.40792228|  PASSED
      rgb_lagged_sum|   5|   1000000|     100|0.96756087|  PASSED
      rgb_lagged_sum|   6|   1000000|     100|0.65817930|  PASSED
      rgb_lagged_sum|   7|   1000000|     100|0.43277428|  PASSED
      rgb_lagged_sum|   8|   1000000|     100|0.44916686|  PASSED
      rgb_lagged_sum|   9|   1000000|     100|0.35982130|  PASSED
      rgb_lagged_sum|  10|   1000000|     100|0.29814491|  PASSED
      rgb_lagged_sum|  11|   1000000|     100|0.46604337|  PASSED
      rgb_lagged_sum|  12|   1000000|     100|0.88106085|  PASSED
      rgb_lagged_sum|  13|   1000000|     100|0.42486184|  PASSED
      rgb_lagged_sum|  14|   1000000|     100|0.08230131|  PASSED
      rgb_lagged_sum|  15|   1000000|     100|0.26067988|  PASSED
      rgb_lagged_sum|  16|   1000000|     100|0.28780477|  PASSED
      rgb_lagged_sum|  17|   1000000|     100|0.73099818|  PASSED
      rgb_lagged_sum|  18|   1000000|     100|0.14950848|  PASSED
      rgb_lagged_sum|  19|   1000000|     100|0.73904147|  PASSED
      rgb_lagged_sum|  20|   1000000|     100|0.22744739|  PASSED
      rgb_lagged_sum|  21|   1000000|     100|0.23185584|  PASSED
      rgb_lagged_sum|  22|   1000000|     100|0.42494100|  PASSED
      rgb_lagged_sum|  23|   1000000|     100|0.03097538|  PASSED
      rgb_lagged_sum|  24|   1000000|     100|0.02973134|  PASSED
      rgb_lagged_sum|  25|   1000000|     100|0.44057431|  PASSED
      rgb_lagged_sum|  26|   1000000|     100|0.64997314|  PASSED
      rgb_lagged_sum|  27|   1000000|     100|0.75063931|  PASSED
      rgb_lagged_sum|  28|   1000000|     100|0.85409468|  PASSED
      rgb_lagged_sum|  29|   1000000|     100|0.00025354|   WEAK
      rgb_lagged_sum|  30|   1000000|     100|0.36725989|  PASSED
      rgb_lagged_sum|  31|   1000000|     100|0.24486715|  PASSED
      rgb_lagged_sum|  32|   1000000|     100|0.27217099|  PASSED
     rgb_kstest_test|   0|     10000|    1000|0.18178764|  PASSED
     dab_bytedistrib|   0|  51200000|       1|0.75375432|  PASSED
             dab_dct| 256|     50000|       1|0.18116969|  PASSED
Preparing to run test 207.  ntuple = 0
        dab_filltree|  32|  15000000|       1|0.98519789|  PASSED
        dab_filltree|  32|  15000000|       1|0.88193954|  PASSED
Preparing to run test 208.  ntuple = 0
       dab_filltree2|   0|   5000000|       1|0.20211019|  PASSED
       dab_filltree2|   1|   5000000|       1|0.15789329|  PASSED
Preparing to run test 209.  ntuple = 0
        dab_monobit2|  12|  65000000|       1|0.79929581|  PASSED

Run 2
ent output:

Entropy = 8.000000 bits per byte.

Optimum compression would reduce the size
of this 3145728000 byte file by 0 percent.

Chi square distribution for 3145728000 samples is 202.01, and randomly
would exceed this value 99.38 percent of the times.

Arithmetic mean value of data bytes is 127.5008 (127.5 = random).
Monte Carlo value for Pi is 3.141640625 (error 0.00 percent).
Serial correlation coefficient is 0.000001 (totally uncorrelated = 0.0).

dieharder output:

#=============================================================================#
#            dieharder version 3.31.1 Copyright 2003 Robert G. Brown          #
#=============================================================================#
   rng_name    |           filename             |rands/second|
 file_input_raw|                         fg2.bin|  5.64e+06  |
#=============================================================================#
        test_name   |ntup| tsamples |psamples|  p-value |Assessment
#=============================================================================#
   diehard_birthdays|   0|       100|     100|0.02763152|  PASSED
      diehard_operm5|   0|   1000000|     100|0.92568798|  PASSED
  diehard_rank_32x32|   0|     40000|     100|0.73663405|  PASSED
    diehard_rank_6x8|   0|    100000|     100|0.78211683|  PASSED
   diehard_bitstream|   0|   2097152|     100|0.05716587|  PASSED
        diehard_opso|   0|   2097152|     100|0.26951494|  PASSED
        diehard_oqso|   0|   2097152|     100|0.12410320|  PASSED
         diehard_dna|   0|   2097152|     100|0.24763351|  PASSED
diehard_count_1s_str|   0|    256000|     100|0.25380539|  PASSED
diehard_count_1s_byt|   0|    256000|     100|0.46545254|  PASSED
 diehard_parking_lot|   0|     12000|     100|0.07295537|  PASSED
    diehard_2dsphere|   2|      8000|     100|0.15111149|  PASSED
    diehard_3dsphere|   3|      4000|     100|0.18263229|  PASSED
     diehard_squeeze|   0|    100000|     100|0.00869371|  PASSED
        diehard_sums|   0|       100|     100|0.15403389|  PASSED
        diehard_runs|   0|    100000|     100|0.80060735|  PASSED
        diehard_runs|   0|    100000|     100|0.51712024|  PASSED
       diehard_craps|   0|    200000|     100|0.85163527|  PASSED
       diehard_craps|   0|    200000|     100|0.06273509|  PASSED
 marsaglia_tsang_gcd|   0|  10000000|     100|0.85142564|  PASSED
 marsaglia_tsang_gcd|   0|  10000000|     100|0.65731674|  PASSED
         sts_monobit|   1|    100000|     100|0.52436851|  PASSED
            sts_runs|   2|    100000|     100|0.52338059|  PASSED
          sts_serial|   1|    100000|     100|0.41493433|  PASSED
          sts_serial|   2|    100000|     100|0.37546843|  PASSED
          sts_serial|   3|    100000|     100|0.81971147|  PASSED
          sts_serial|   3|    100000|     100|0.64385034|  PASSED
          sts_serial|   4|    100000|     100|0.67349678|  PASSED
          sts_serial|   4|    100000|     100|0.15416763|  PASSED
          sts_serial|   5|    100000|     100|0.29761421|  PASSED
          sts_serial|   5|    100000|     100|0.30853436|  PASSED
          sts_serial|   6|    100000|     100|0.86217909|  PASSED
          sts_serial|   6|    100000|     100|0.61189123|  PASSED
          sts_serial|   7|    100000|     100|0.87697591|  PASSED
          sts_serial|   7|    100000|     100|0.95921884|  PASSED
          sts_serial|   8|    100000|     100|0.74492602|  PASSED
          sts_serial|   8|    100000|     100|0.88912784|  PASSED
          sts_serial|   9|    100000|     100|0.02658420|  PASSED
          sts_serial|   9|    100000|     100|0.10222474|  PASSED
          sts_serial|  10|    100000|     100|0.03401087|  PASSED
          sts_serial|  10|    100000|     100|0.91166190|  PASSED
          sts_serial|  11|    100000|     100|0.40653520|  PASSED
          sts_serial|  11|    100000|     100|0.53778823|  PASSED
          sts_serial|  12|    100000|     100|0.80985546|  PASSED
          sts_serial|  12|    100000|     100|0.23123896|  PASSED
          sts_serial|  13|    100000|     100|0.72981879|  PASSED
          sts_serial|  13|    100000|     100|0.52025530|  PASSED
          sts_serial|  14|    100000|     100|0.24454391|  PASSED
          sts_serial|  14|    100000|     100|0.26851145|  PASSED
          sts_serial|  15|    100000|     100|0.13334970|  PASSED
          sts_serial|  15|    100000|     100|0.81308797|  PASSED
          sts_serial|  16|    100000|     100|0.17512814|  PASSED
          sts_serial|  16|    100000|     100|0.09018089|  PASSED
         rgb_bitdist|   1|    100000|     100|0.93677992|  PASSED
         rgb_bitdist|   2|    100000|     100|0.02340170|  PASSED
         rgb_bitdist|   3|    100000|     100|0.99776745|   WEAK
         rgb_bitdist|   4|    100000|     100|0.59992524|  PASSED
         rgb_bitdist|   5|    100000|     100|0.30955805|  PASSED
         rgb_bitdist|   6|    100000|     100|0.87027149|  PASSED
         rgb_bitdist|   7|    100000|     100|0.95197441|  PASSED
         rgb_bitdist|   8|    100000|     100|0.84269892|  PASSED
         rgb_bitdist|   9|    100000|     100|0.34748187|  PASSED
         rgb_bitdist|  10|    100000|     100|0.71681849|  PASSED
         rgb_bitdist|  11|    100000|     100|0.41229819|  PASSED
         rgb_bitdist|  12|    100000|     100|0.98273999|  PASSED
rgb_minimum_distance|   2|     10000|    1000|0.77009233|  PASSED
rgb_minimum_distance|   3|     10000|    1000|0.57524337|  PASSED
rgb_minimum_distance|   4|     10000|    1000|0.00454860|   WEAK
rgb_minimum_distance|   5|     10000|    1000|0.22026032|  PASSED
    rgb_permutations|   2|    100000|     100|0.23772247|  PASSED
    rgb_permutations|   3|    100000|     100|0.03823947|  PASSED
    rgb_permutations|   4|    100000|     100|0.48103920|  PASSED
    rgb_permutations|   5|    100000|     100|0.85886410|  PASSED
      rgb_lagged_sum|   0|   1000000|     100|0.18563975|  PASSED
      rgb_lagged_sum|   1|   1000000|     100|0.95643512|  PASSED
      rgb_lagged_sum|   2|   1000000|     100|0.40632617|  PASSED
      rgb_lagged_sum|   3|   1000000|     100|0.17637298|  PASSED
      rgb_lagged_sum|   4|   1000000|     100|0.45128146|  PASSED
      rgb_lagged_sum|   5|   1000000|     100|0.55541504|  PASSED
      rgb_lagged_sum|   6|   1000000|     100|0.97326058|  PASSED
      rgb_lagged_sum|   7|   1000000|     100|0.83256108|  PASSED
      rgb_lagged_sum|   8|   1000000|     100|0.61127606|  PASSED
      rgb_lagged_sum|   9|   1000000|     100|0.42985876|  PASSED
      rgb_lagged_sum|  10|   1000000|     100|0.41418251|  PASSED
      rgb_lagged_sum|  11|   1000000|     100|0.51146094|  PASSED
      rgb_lagged_sum|  12|   1000000|     100|0.56179407|  PASSED
      rgb_lagged_sum|  13|   1000000|     100|0.82937810|  PASSED
      rgb_lagged_sum|  14|   1000000|     100|0.81265552|  PASSED
      rgb_lagged_sum|  15|   1000000|     100|0.34896824|  PASSED
      rgb_lagged_sum|  16|   1000000|     100|0.15237025|  PASSED
      rgb_lagged_sum|  17|   1000000|     100|0.83392657|  PASSED
      rgb_lagged_sum|  18|   1000000|     100|0.86312049|  PASSED
      rgb_lagged_sum|  19|   1000000|     100|0.07742212|  PASSED
      rgb_lagged_sum|  20|   1000000|     100|0.37033758|  PASSED
      rgb_lagged_sum|  21|   1000000|     100|0.43216894|  PASSED
      rgb_lagged_sum|  22|   1000000|     100|0.97366291|  PASSED
      rgb_lagged_sum|  23|   1000000|     100|0.70379788|  PASSED
      rgb_lagged_sum|  24|   1000000|     100|0.10270978|  PASSED
      rgb_lagged_sum|  25|   1000000|     100|0.68722156|  PASSED
      rgb_lagged_sum|  26|   1000000|     100|0.16262113|  PASSED
      rgb_lagged_sum|  27|   1000000|     100|0.97792972|  PASSED
      rgb_lagged_sum|  28|   1000000|     100|0.48595679|  PASSED
      rgb_lagged_sum|  29|   1000000|     100|0.75885757|  PASSED
      rgb_lagged_sum|  30|   1000000|     100|0.47496469|  PASSED
      rgb_lagged_sum|  31|   1000000|     100|0.06875677|  PASSED
      rgb_lagged_sum|  32|   1000000|     100|0.98162956|  PASSED
     rgb_kstest_test|   0|     10000|    1000|0.96442806|  PASSED
     dab_bytedistrib|   0|  51200000|       1|0.66598818|  PASSED
             dab_dct| 256|     50000|       1|0.15014667|  PASSED
Preparing to run test 207.  ntuple = 0
        dab_filltree|  32|  15000000|       1|0.23148953|  PASSED
        dab_filltree|  32|  15000000|       1|0.66925583|  PASSED
Preparing to run test 208.  ntuple = 0
       dab_filltree2|   0|   5000000|       1|0.59595166|  PASSED
       dab_filltree2|   1|   5000000|       1|0.11677795|  PASSED
Preparing to run test 209.  ntuple = 0
        dab_monobit2|  12|  65000000|       1|0.98119502|  PASSED

Run 3
ent output:

Entropy = 8.000000 bits per byte.

Optimum compression would reduce the size
of this 3145728000 byte file by 0 percent.

Chi square distribution for 3145728000 samples is 253.98, and randomly
would exceed this value 50.62 percent of the times.

Arithmetic mean value of data bytes is 127.4995 (127.5 = random).
Monte Carlo value for Pi is 3.141448769 (error 0.00 percent).
Serial correlation coefficient is -0.000014 (totally uncorrelated = 0.0).

dieharder output:

#=============================================================================#
#            dieharder version 3.31.1 Copyright 2003 Robert G. Brown          #
#=============================================================================#
   rng_name    |           filename             |rands/second|
 file_input_raw|                         fg3.bin|  5.54e+06  |
#=============================================================================#
        test_name   |ntup| tsamples |psamples|  p-value |Assessment
#=============================================================================#
   diehard_birthdays|   0|       100|     100|0.40338040|  PASSED
      diehard_operm5|   0|   1000000|     100|0.59478259|  PASSED
  diehard_rank_32x32|   0|     40000|     100|0.52896696|  PASSED
    diehard_rank_6x8|   0|    100000|     100|0.95455510|  PASSED
   diehard_bitstream|   0|   2097152|     100|0.51696104|  PASSED
        diehard_opso|   0|   2097152|     100|0.22323374|  PASSED
        diehard_oqso|   0|   2097152|     100|0.36968906|  PASSED
         diehard_dna|   0|   2097152|     100|0.00185043|   WEAK
diehard_count_1s_str|   0|    256000|     100|0.57326890|  PASSED
diehard_count_1s_byt|   0|    256000|     100|0.83872988|  PASSED
 diehard_parking_lot|   0|     12000|     100|0.94923891|  PASSED
    diehard_2dsphere|   2|      8000|     100|0.13498766|  PASSED
    diehard_3dsphere|   3|      4000|     100|0.67515912|  PASSED
     diehard_squeeze|   0|    100000|     100|0.22840132|  PASSED
        diehard_sums|   0|       100|     100|0.00032457|   WEAK
        diehard_runs|   0|    100000|     100|0.49802756|  PASSED
        diehard_runs|   0|    100000|     100|0.98157325|  PASSED
       diehard_craps|   0|    200000|     100|0.93565100|  PASSED
       diehard_craps|   0|    200000|     100|0.57679185|  PASSED
 marsaglia_tsang_gcd|   0|  10000000|     100|0.06196134|  PASSED
 marsaglia_tsang_gcd|   0|  10000000|     100|0.45878969|  PASSED
         sts_monobit|   1|    100000|     100|0.91706123|  PASSED
            sts_runs|   2|    100000|     100|0.70689416|  PASSED
          sts_serial|   1|    100000|     100|0.72773454|  PASSED
          sts_serial|   2|    100000|     100|0.65480309|  PASSED
          sts_serial|   3|    100000|     100|0.08769917|  PASSED
          sts_serial|   3|    100000|     100|0.96537626|  PASSED
          sts_serial|   4|    100000|     100|0.29487935|  PASSED
          sts_serial|   4|    100000|     100|0.30240110|  PASSED
          sts_serial|   5|    100000|     100|0.29330679|  PASSED
          sts_serial|   5|    100000|     100|0.81922667|  PASSED
          sts_serial|   6|    100000|     100|0.95896353|  PASSED
          sts_serial|   6|    100000|     100|0.58963017|  PASSED
          sts_serial|   7|    100000|     100|0.18378174|  PASSED
          sts_serial|   7|    100000|     100|0.01893783|  PASSED
          sts_serial|   8|    100000|     100|0.13901661|  PASSED
          sts_serial|   8|    100000|     100|0.82047418|  PASSED
          sts_serial|   9|    100000|     100|0.99736210|   WEAK
          sts_serial|   9|    100000|     100|0.33635566|  PASSED
          sts_serial|  10|    100000|     100|0.69851125|  PASSED
          sts_serial|  10|    100000|     100|0.78231771|  PASSED
          sts_serial|  11|    100000|     100|0.90879524|  PASSED
          sts_serial|  11|    100000|     100|0.95936497|  PASSED
          sts_serial|  12|    100000|     100|0.85017840|  PASSED
          sts_serial|  12|    100000|     100|0.93810643|  PASSED
          sts_serial|  13|    100000|     100|0.29099501|  PASSED
          sts_serial|  13|    100000|     100|0.26865484|  PASSED
          sts_serial|  14|    100000|     100|0.99875705|   WEAK
          sts_serial|  14|    100000|     100|0.85740032|  PASSED
          sts_serial|  15|    100000|     100|0.65366828|  PASSED
          sts_serial|  15|    100000|     100|0.97554415|  PASSED
          sts_serial|  16|    100000|     100|0.91608921|  PASSED
          sts_serial|  16|    100000|     100|0.95448406|  PASSED
         rgb_bitdist|   1|    100000|     100|0.21681436|  PASSED
         rgb_bitdist|   2|    100000|     100|0.05751244|  PASSED
         rgb_bitdist|   3|    100000|     100|0.98900249|  PASSED
         rgb_bitdist|   4|    100000|     100|0.89284281|  PASSED
         rgb_bitdist|   5|    100000|     100|0.83374660|  PASSED
         rgb_bitdist|   6|    100000|     100|0.47431641|  PASSED
         rgb_bitdist|   7|    100000|     100|0.53877719|  PASSED
         rgb_bitdist|   8|    100000|     100|0.82574326|  PASSED
         rgb_bitdist|   9|    100000|     100|0.42167025|  PASSED
         rgb_bitdist|  10|    100000|     100|0.90633840|  PASSED
         rgb_bitdist|  11|    100000|     100|0.71829837|  PASSED
         rgb_bitdist|  12|    100000|     100|0.58040873|  PASSED
rgb_minimum_distance|   2|     10000|    1000|0.96802310|  PASSED
rgb_minimum_distance|   3|     10000|    1000|0.18814919|  PASSED
rgb_minimum_distance|   4|     10000|    1000|0.02284249|  PASSED
rgb_minimum_distance|   5|     10000|    1000|0.09046293|  PASSED
    rgb_permutations|   2|    100000|     100|0.93885971|  PASSED
    rgb_permutations|   3|    100000|     100|0.66772808|  PASSED
    rgb_permutations|   4|    100000|     100|0.96049065|  PASSED
    rgb_permutations|   5|    100000|     100|0.99975661|   WEAK
      rgb_lagged_sum|   0|   1000000|     100|0.67142100|  PASSED
      rgb_lagged_sum|   1|   1000000|     100|0.44233671|  PASSED
      rgb_lagged_sum|   2|   1000000|     100|0.73193615|  PASSED
      rgb_lagged_sum|   3|   1000000|     100|0.37549273|  PASSED
      rgb_lagged_sum|   4|   1000000|     100|0.92244385|  PASSED
      rgb_lagged_sum|   5|   1000000|     100|0.92568253|  PASSED
      rgb_lagged_sum|   6|   1000000|     100|0.57496079|  PASSED
      rgb_lagged_sum|   7|   1000000|     100|0.88886376|  PASSED
      rgb_lagged_sum|   8|   1000000|     100|0.58412896|  PASSED
      rgb_lagged_sum|   9|   1000000|     100|0.43987345|  PASSED
      rgb_lagged_sum|  10|   1000000|     100|0.29758579|  PASSED
      rgb_lagged_sum|  11|   1000000|     100|0.26989399|  PASSED
      rgb_lagged_sum|  12|   1000000|     100|0.45817852|  PASSED
      rgb_lagged_sum|  13|   1000000|     100|0.69616494|  PASSED
      rgb_lagged_sum|  14|   1000000|     100|0.37199183|  PASSED
      rgb_lagged_sum|  15|   1000000|     100|0.01067473|  PASSED
      rgb_lagged_sum|  16|   1000000|     100|0.18369082|  PASSED
      rgb_lagged_sum|  17|   1000000|     100|0.58534250|  PASSED
      rgb_lagged_sum|  18|   1000000|     100|0.23158388|  PASSED
      rgb_lagged_sum|  19|   1000000|     100|0.04368539|  PASSED
      rgb_lagged_sum|  20|   1000000|     100|0.82555748|  PASSED
      rgb_lagged_sum|  21|   1000000|     100|0.60010186|  PASSED
      rgb_lagged_sum|  22|   1000000|     100|0.73140849|  PASSED
      rgb_lagged_sum|  23|   1000000|     100|0.00840861|  PASSED
      rgb_lagged_sum|  24|   1000000|     100|0.01872526|  PASSED
      rgb_lagged_sum|  25|   1000000|     100|0.11412705|  PASSED
      rgb_lagged_sum|  26|   1000000|     100|0.69801935|  PASSED
      rgb_lagged_sum|  27|   1000000|     100|0.07491189|  PASSED
      rgb_lagged_sum|  28|   1000000|     100|0.99062910|  PASSED
      rgb_lagged_sum|  29|   1000000|     100|0.10470245|  PASSED
      rgb_lagged_sum|  30|   1000000|     100|0.33499716|  PASSED
      rgb_lagged_sum|  31|   1000000|     100|0.15717211|  PASSED
      rgb_lagged_sum|  32|   1000000|     100|0.81830986|  PASSED
     rgb_kstest_test|   0|     10000|    1000|0.79008985|  PASSED
     dab_bytedistrib|   0|  51200000|       1|0.40621984|  PASSED
             dab_dct| 256|     50000|       1|0.36910998|  PASSED
Preparing to run test 207.  ntuple = 0
        dab_filltree|  32|  15000000|       1|0.62255692|  PASSED
        dab_filltree|  32|  15000000|       1|0.89873950|  PASSED
Preparing to run test 208.  ntuple = 0
       dab_filltree2|   0|   5000000|       1|0.11574121|  PASSED
       dab_filltree2|   1|   5000000|       1|0.45622515|  PASSED
Preparing to run test 209.  ntuple = 0
        dab_monobit2|  12|  65000000|       1|0.95595376|  PASSED

The above are the very first tests of FG that I got around to publish, despite having such hardware for more than half a year now. Others have done of course better than me and published their own tests waaaaay faster: mod6, danielpbarron, trinque, BingoBoingo. How about you, what's your own FG saying to you?


  1. Hey, they have been friendly with me, I don't know about you! Are you inca? 

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